Political Sociology: A Reader

By S. N. Eisenstadt | Go to book overview

likely to pursue regulative goals in the international environment. Similarly, a political system which has not developed an internal distributive capability is unlikely to pursue distributive goals in the international environment. Finally, a political system which has a high internal responsive capability will manifest a different kind of international responsiveness than a system in which internal responsiveness is less well developed. What we suggest here is that there are relations between domestic and international capabilities. But beyond this we can only say that the interrelation among domestic and international capabilities is a matter for deductive and empirical method used together, rather than for simple reliance on logical inference.

Thus the aims of research on political systems must be: (1) to discover and compare capabilities profiles summarizing the flows of inputs and outputs between these political systems and their domestic and international environments; (2) to discover and compare the structures and processes which convert these inputs into outputs; and (3) to discover and compare the recruitment and socialization processes which maintain these systems in equilibrium or enable them to adapt to environmental or self‐ initiated changes.

We have also to speak of the capabilities of other social systems. Just as the political system has a particular level and range of performance which we can summarize in terms of a capabilities profile, so also do other social systems in the society of which the political system is a part, and the international political system of which it is a member, have capabilities. Such social systems as the economy, the religious community, or family, kinship, and tribal structures also extract resources from the environment, regulate behavior, distribute values, display and transmit symbols, and respond to demands. Similarly, political systems in the international environment have capabilities, and the international political system may have some extractive, regulative, distributive, symbolic, and responsive capability. The flow of inputs into political systems, the kinds of problems they confront, and the pressure on them to develop capabilities will vary with the performance patterns or the capabilities of these other social systems. The distributive capability of an economy will affect the rate and intensity of demands for distribution, regulation, and the like entering into the political system. The need for developing the regulative capability of a political system will vary with the regulative capability of other social systems, including the international political system. When we think of the factors affecting the capabilities of a particular political system, we must see this problem in the context of interacting social systems, of which the political system is only one.


NOTES
1.
Gerth and Mills, eds., From Max Weber, 77.
2.
See, for example, Harold D. Lasswell, Politics: Who Gets What, When and How (Glencoe, 1959); Dahl, Modern Political Analysis (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1963).
3.
Talcott Parsons, Structure and Process in Modern Societies (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1959), 181.
4.
"Social Theory and Comparative Politics," in Eckstein and Apter, eds., Comparative Politics (New York, 1963), 77.
5.
See, for example, David Apter, "A Comparative Method for the Study of Politics," in ibid., 82 ff.
6.
S. N. Eisenstadt, The Political Systems of Empires (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1963).

10
Charisma, Order, and Status

Edward Shils

Here I will explore the ramifications of charismatic sensitivity, i.e., the propensity to impute charismatic qualities to actions, persons, institutions and cultural

From Edward Shils, "Charisma, Order, and Status," American Sociological Review, XXX, No. 2 (April 1965), 199-213. Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher. objects. My analysis takes its point of departure in Max Weber's analysis of charismatic authority. In trying to analyze charismatic authority more systematically than Weber was able to do, I have concluded that he was dealing with one particular variant of the charismatic propensity, which has

-61-

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