Political Sociology: A Reader

By S. N. Eisenstadt | Go to book overview

parallelism between the historical and contemporary primitive societies, there can be little doubt that the most contemporary societies, as depicted by anthropologists, do constitute an interesting model or a limiting case for the study of political sociology.


NOTES
1.
Franz Oppenheimer, The State, Its History and Development (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1914); R. H. Lowie, Primitive Society (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1920); Lawrence Krader, The Origins of the State, Foundation Series of Anthropology (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1968).
2.
Oppenheimer, op. cit.
3.
Marshall D. Sahlins, "Culture and Environment: The Study of Cultural Ecology,"' in Sol Tax, ed., Horizons of Anthropology (Chicago: Aldine, 1964), pp. 132-147; Stanley Diamond, "The Search for the Primitive," in I. Galdston, ed., Man's Image in Medicine and Anthropology (International University Press, 1963), pp. 62-115; Krader, op. cit.
4.
W. E. H. Stanner, "On Aboriginal Religion, I," Oceania, XXX (December 1959); Stanner, "On Aboriginal Religion II," ibid. (June 1960); Stanner, "The Dreaming," in T. A. G. Hungerford, ed., Australian Signpost (Melbourne: Cheshire, 1956), reprinted in William Lessa and Evan Z. Vogt, eds., Reader in Comparative Religion (Evanston: Row, Peterson, 1958).
5.
On this in greater detail, see S. N. Eisenstadt, "Anthropological Studies of Complex Societies," in Eisenstadt, Essays in Comparative Institutions (New York: Wiley, 1965), pp. 77-107.
6.
See A. L. Epstein, Politics in an Urban African Community (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1958), p. 234.
7.
See Émile Durkheim, On the Division of Labour in Society (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1947).
8.
Max Gluckman, "The Kingdom of the Zulu of South Africa," in M. Fortes and E. E. Evans-Pritchard, eds., African Political Systems (London: Oxford University Press, 1940).
9.
Audrey I. Richards, "The Political System of the Bemba of Northern Rhodesia," in Fortes and Evans-Pritchard, op. cit.
10.
E. E. Evans-Pritchard, The Divine Kingship of the Shilluk of the Nilotic Sudan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948).
11.
E. E. Evans-Pritchard, The Political System of the Annuak of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (London: London School of Economics, 1940).
12.
Daryll Forde, "Ward Organization among the Yako," Africa, XX (1950), 267-289.
13.
For a very representative collection of articles on primitive political systems, see Ronald Cohen and John Middleton, eds., Comparative Political Systems—Studies in the Politics of Pre-industrial Societies (New York: Natural History Press, 1957).
14.
Gluckman, op. cit.
15.
Melville J. Herskovits, Dahomey: An Ancient West African Kingdom (Illnois: Northwestern University Press, 1967).
16.
Evans-Pritchard, The Political System of the Annuak of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
17.
Marshall D. Sahlins, Social Stratification in Polynesia (Seattle: American Ethnological Society, 1958); Sahlins, "Poor-Man, Rich-Man, Big-Man, Chief," Comparative Studies in Society and History, V (1963), 285-303.
18.
Forde, op. cit.
19.
E. Adamson Hoebel, "Associations and the State in the Plains," American Anthropologist, XXXVIII (1936), 433‐ 438.
20.
Karl Polanyi, Conrad M. Arensberg, and Harry W. Pearson, Trade and Market in Early Empires (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1957).
21.
Max Gluckman, Politics, Law and Religion in Tribal Society (Chicago: Aldine, 1965); Gluckman, The Ideas of Barotse Jurisprudence (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1965).
22.
Frederick Barth, Political Leadership among Swat Pathana (London: University of London Press, 1959).
23.
See S. N. Eisenstadt, "Primitive Political Systems: A Preliminary Comparative Analysis," American Anthropologist, LXI, No. 2 (April 1959), 205-220.
24.
Audrey I. Richards, "The Political System of the Bemba Tribe of Northern Rhodesia," in Fortes and Evans‐ Pritchard, op. cit.
25.
Meyer Fortes, "The Political System of the Tallensi of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast," in Fortes and Evans-Pritchard, op. cit.
26.
See, for instance, Evans-Pritchard, The Political System of the Annuak of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
27.
Gluckman, "The Kingdom of the Zulu of South Africa."
28.
Max Gluckman, Custom and Conflict in Africa (Oxford: Blackwell, 1955).
29.
Sahlins, "Poor-Man, Rich-Man, Big-Man, Chief"; Sahlins, Social Stratification in Polynesia (Seattle: University Press, 1958); Irving Goldman, "The Evolution of Polynesian Societies," in Stanley Diamond, ed., Culture in History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1960), pp. 687-712; Goldman, "Status Rivalry and Cultural Evolution in Polynesia," American Anthropologist, LVII (1955), 680-697.
30.
James A. Barnes, Politics in a Changing Society (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1954). See also, for more recent approaches, Victor Turner and Marc Swatz, eds., Political Anthropology (Chicago: Aldine, 1966).

INTRODUCTION
TO THE READINGS

In the following section several selections dealing with primitive political systems are presented. Most of the essays attempt some type of comparative analysis. Lloyd Fallers' article compares different African political systems and attempts to suggest the different potentials for political modernization inherent in them. Fallers tends to emphasize the importance of center formation in the primitive society as a facilitating factor in the process of modernization. Morton H. Fried's contribution represents the evolutionary approach to the analysis of primitive political systems, with special emphasis on the ways in which the development of stratification determines the crystallization of differentiated political organizations. Max Gluckman indicates how partial differentiation of the

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