Political Sociology: A Reader

By S. N. Eisenstadt | Go to book overview
(hereafter quoted as Očerki), pp. 327 ff.; P. Belyaev (as cited p. 301, n. 1), p. 173 and passim.
20.
M. Dyakonov, Očerki, pp. 320 ff.
21.
M. Dyakonov, Očerki, pp. 362 ff.; G. Vernadsky (as cited, n, 7).
22.
V. Sergeyevich, Drevnosti russkogo prava, III (St. Petersburg, 1911); cf. G. Vernadsky, "The Heresy of the Judaizers and the Policies of Ivan III of Moscow," Speculum, VIII (1933), 445 f.
23.
G. Vernadsky, PDH, Ch. XIV.
24.
G. Vernadsky, PDH, pp. 169 ff. Cf. H. von Staden, Aufzeichnungen iiber den Moscauer Staat, ed. F. Epstein (Hamburg, 1930).
25.
M. Vladimirski-Budanov, Obzor, pp. 566 ff.; K. Nevolin, Polnoe sobranie sočineni, IV (St. Petersburg, 1857), 191 ff.
26.
M. Vladimirski-Budanov, Obzor, pp. 562 ff.; K. Nevolin, op. cit., IV, 156 ff.
27.
Cf. G. Vernadsky, "Studies in the History of Moscovian Private Law," Studi in memoria di Aldo Albertoni, III (Padova, 1937), 444 ff.
28.
B. Grekov, "Jurjev den i zapovednye gody," Izvestija of the Academy of Sciences of U.S.S.R., 1926, pp. 67 ff.; I. Polosin, "Le servage russe et son origine," Revue Internationale de sociologie, 36 (1928), pp. 608 ff. A. Eck, "L'asservissement du paysan russe," Le Servage (as cited p. 304, n. 3), pp. 256-257.
29.
M. Dyakonov, Očerki, pp. 336 ff.
30.
G. I. Bratianu, "Servage de la glèbe et régime fiscal," Annals d'histoire économique et sociale, V (1933), 445 ff.
31.
M. Vladimirski-Budanov, Obzor, pp. 580 ff.
32.
Ibid., pp. 409 ff.
33.
See V. O. Klyuchevski, Kurs russkoi istorii, IV (2d ed., Moscow, 1915), 431 ff.; English edition, A History of Russia, IV (London and New York, 1926), pp. 339 ff. Cf. G. Vernadsky, "Zamečanija o juridičeskoi prirode krepost‐ nogo prava," Mélanges Pierre Struve (Prague, 1925), pp. 253 ff.
34.
A. Kornilov, Kurs istorii Rossii v XIX veke, II (Moscow, 1918), pp. 181 ff. American edition: Modern Russian History (New York, 1924), II, 45 ff.; G. T. Robinson, Rural Russia under the Old Régime (London, New York, Toronto, 1932), Chapter V.

31
Some Aspects of Japanese Feudal Institutions

K. Asakawa

The starting point of my discourse should be the shō. Shō ... was the generic name applied to several species of private domains—such as shō in the narrower sense, sono, maki, soma, and the like, after their conditions had been more or less equalized— whose nature as an institution defies an exact definition. Being a slow, unpremediated growth under circumstances of considerable diversity, the shō may better be described and analyzed than briefly defined. When they made their modest appearance in the eighth century, the shō were few in number and of an irregular and varying institutional character; but they all shared in common at least the following aspects: (1) each shō contained, as its chief element, a tract of land that had been newly brought under cultivation; (2) the shō was under the patronage of some person of influence or of an institution, known as the hon-ke ... and ryō-ke, ... to whom we shall hereafter apply the word "seignior"; (3) some shō enjoyed or claimed and all shō aspired for fiscal immunity in whole or in part, the extent of

immunity being coincident with the degree to which their revenues were diverted from the fiscus of the state to the private coffer of the seignior. In the course of the next four hundred years, shō so far increased in number and in immunity at the expense of the state, that, at the end of the twelfth century, their extent probably equaled that of the public domain, and their practical influence upon the political and economic life of the nation overshadowed that of the government. At the same time, the shō underwent as remarkable an internal development. It is the first requisite for the student of Japanese feudalism to gain an understanding of the nature of the shō from a comparative point of view.

We shall imagine ourselves visiting a typical shō about the year 1150, for then the shō as an institution had attained its full maturity. Here we find our shō already immune or nearly so from taxation and from the intrusion of public officials. More or less autonomous, the shō is under the shadowy rule of an absent seignior, who is a court noble at Kyōto or perhaps a great temple; his interest is in the keeping of his agent residing in the shō. Under these agents range themselves in order the various tenures of land and the classes of people who hold them. As we set about

____________________
From K. Asakawa, "Some Aspects of Japanese Feudal Institutions," Asiatic Society of Japan, Transactions, XLVI, Part I (1918), 83-101. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

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