Political Sociology: A Reader

By S. N. Eisenstadt | Go to book overview
Government and Society: Essays Presented to Sir John Neale, ed. S. T. Bindoff et al. (London, 1961).
18.
Bancroft, Dangerous Positions and Proceedings (London, 1593), pp. 126, 127.
19.
Frere and Douglas, Puritan Manifestoes, Introduction, p. xiv. Knappen treats Puritan parliamentary tactics as "ordinary"—excluding from this category, however, the appeal to public opinion (Tudor Puritanism, p. 234). In fact, these tactics were quite unprecedented—this was apparent to men like Bancroft and of course to the Queen, as it is today to conservative historians like J. E. Neale.
20.
Quoted in Irvonwy Morgan, Prince Charles' Puritan Chaplain (London, 1957), p. 111. For another description of lobbying, see Thomas Fuller, Church History of Britain (London, 1845), V, 83.
21.
Neale, Parliaments: 1587-1607, p. 61. See Second Part of a Register, for copies of the petitions.
22.
Mark Curtis, "The Alienated Intellectuals of Early Stuart England," Past and Present, no. 23 (November 1962), especially pp. 27-28. On university life in general, see William Haller, The Rise of Puritanism (New York, 1957), ch. ii, and Mark Curtis, Oxford and Cambridge in Transition: 1558-1642 (Oxford, 1959).
23.
Morgan, Prince Charles' Puritan Chaplain (a life of John Preston), pp. 28-40.
24.
Haller, Rise, pp. 293ff. See Milton's own statement of his commitment in his Second Defense (1654), Works, VIII, 119ff.
25.
Thomas Carlyle, ed., Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches (London, 1893), I, 79-80.
26.
William Perkins, Works (London, 1616), I, 398; quoted in H. O. Porter, Reformation and Reaction in Tudor Cambridge (Cambridge, Eng., 1958), p. 312.
27.
S. E. Morison, The Founding of Harvard College (Cambridge, Mass., 1935), appendix B, pp. 359-410.
28.
Shepard, Autobiography (Boston, 1832), pp. 42-43; quoted in H. W. Schneider, The Puritan Mind (Ann Arbor, 1958), pp. 78-79; on Winthrop see E. S. Morgan, The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John Winthrop (Boston, 1958), p. 40.
29.
Quoted in Perry Miller, Orthodoxy in Massachusetts 1630-1650 (Boston, 1959), p. 100.

67
Japan's Aristocratic Revolution

Thomas C. Smith

"An aristocracy," Alexis de Tocqueville wrote, "seldom yields [its privileges] without a protracted struggle, in the course of which implacable animosities are kindled between the different classes of society." Despite our democratic partialities, most of us would add, "And why should it?" To know the exalted pleasures of power, and the grace of refined taste with the means of satisfying it; to believe oneself superior on the only evidence that gives conviction—the behavior of others; and to enjoy all this as birthright, with no vitiating struggle, nor any doubt that one's privileges are for God, King, country, and the good of one's fellow man—what happier human condition, for a few, have men devised ?

Yet, not all aristocracies have behaved as one fancies they must. Japan's warrior class, a feudal aristocracy though it differed from European aristocracies in crucial respects, did not merely surrender its privileges. It abolished them. There was no democratic revolution in Japan because none was necessary : the aristocracy itself was revolutionary.

Consider the bare outlines of the case. Until 1868, Japan was ruled by a class of knights who alone had the right to hold public office and bear arms and whose cultural superiority the rest of the population acknowledged. A party within this aristocracy of the sword (and swagger) took power in 1868 and embarked on a series of extraordinary reforms. Where there had before been little more than a league of great nobles, they created an immensely powerful central government: they abolished all estate distinctions, doing away with warrior privileges and throwing office open to anyone with the education and ability to hold it; they instituted a system of compulsory military service, although commoners had previously been forbidden on pain of death to possess arms; they established a system of universal public education; and much else. The result was a generation of sweeping and breathless change such as history had rarely seen until this century. I believe, though of course I cannot prove, that these decades brought greater changes to Japan than did the Great Revolution of 1789 to France.

Why was the Japanese aristocracy—or part of it— revolutionary ? Why did it abandon the shelter of its historic privileges for the rigors of free competition, which, incidentally, many warriors did not

____________________
From Thomas C. Smith, "Japan's Aristocratic Revolution," Yale Review, L, No. 3 (Spring 1961), 370-383. Copyright 1961 Yale University Press. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

-430-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Political Sociology: A Reader
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 632

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.