Political Sociology: A Reader

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according to rational principles; a dedicated association in which men participate not by virtue of being born into it as heirs of immemorial custom, but by virtue of free choice, of the will to affirm certain sacred principles; a community of the uprooted, of migrants who have turned their back on the past in which they were born; ... a society fluid and experimental, uncommitted to rigid values, cherishing freedom of will and choice and bestowing all the promise of the future on those with the manhood to reject the past. 22

Karl W. Deutsch, S. A. Burrell, R. A. Kann, M. Lee, Jr., M. Lichterman, R. E. Lindgren, F. L. Loewenheim, R. W. Van Wagenen, Political Community and the North Atlantic Area (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957), p. 11.
Edward Shils, "The Military in the Political Development of the New States," in John J. Johnson, The Role of the Military in Underdeveloped Countries (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962), p. 14.
Ibid., p. 29.
J. Hector St. John Crèvecoeur, Letters from an American Farmer (New York: Dolphin Books, n.d.), pp. 46-47.
Carl Bridenbaugh, Rebels and Gentlemen. Philadelphia in the Age of Franklin (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1942).
See John Plamenatz, On Alien Rule and Self Government (New York: Longmans, Green, 1960), pp. 47-48.
Ibid., p. 51.
Shils, "The Military ... ," op. cit., p. 40.
James R. Jacobs, The Beginning of the U.S. Army, 1783-1812 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947); see also Deutsch et al., Political Community and the North Atlantic Area, p. 26.
What then is the American, this new man ... ? He is an American, who leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced.... He becomes an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater. The American is a new man, who acts upon new principles; he must therefore entertain new ideas and form new opinions." Crèvecoeur, Letters from an American Farmer, pp. 49-50.
Max Weber, "The Protestant Sects and the Spirit of Capitalism," in Essays in Sociology, translated by Hans Gerth and C. W. Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946), pp. 309, 313.
Robin Williams, American Society (New York: Knopf, 1957), p. 313.
Richard Schlatter, "The Puritan Strain," in John Higham, ed., The Reconstruction of American History (New York: Harper, 1962), pp. 39-42. See also Bernard Bailyn, Education in the Forming of American Society (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1960), for a discussion of the influence which the multiplication of numerous sects by the eve of the Revolution had upon the spread of education. The promotional and propagandizing possibilities of education made it an instrument of survival among competing sects. "Sectarian groups, without regard to the intellectual complexity of their doctrine or to their views on the value of learning to religion, became dynamic elements in the spread of education, spawning schools of all sorts, continuously, competitively in all their settlements; carrying education into the remote frontiers." Bailyn, pp. 40-41.
"What strikes one most forcibly about the Puritans' efforts in education is the expectation of uniformity. Every family, without regard to its fortunes and the accomplishment of its head, and every town, without regard to its condition or resources, was expected to provide an equal minimum of education—for who, in what place, should be exempt from the essential work of life? ... the quest for salvation ... this was an occupation without limit, in the proper training for which all were expected to join equally, without regard to natural ability and worldly circumstance." Bailyn, op. cit., p. 81.
Bureau of the Census, A Statistical Abstract Supplement, Historical Statistics of the U.S. Colonial Times to 1957 (Washington: 1957), p. 214. The census of 1840 was the first to report literacy.
Tocqueville, Democracy in America, I, 316.
Ibid., p. 311.
Williams, American Society, p. 312.
G. M. Trevelyan, History of England (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1954), II, 143-144.
Schlatter, "The Puritan Strain," op. cit., p. 42.
Rossiter, Conservatism in America (New York: Vintage, 1962), pp. 201-202.
Thistlethwaite, The Great Experiment (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1955), pp. 319-320.

Nationalism and the State: A Russian Dilemma

Hans Rogger

The title of the panel at which this paper was originally presented—"Nationalism and the Growth

of States," at the 1960 meeting of the American Historical Association in New York City—suggested a concern with nationalism as a political phenomenon. We were not speaking primarily about love of country, the cultivation of a national style or hatred of the foreigner, but about political convictions, atti

From Hans Rogger, "Nationalism and the State: A Russian Dilemma," Comparative Studies in Society and History, IV, No. 3 (April 1962), 253-264. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.


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