Karl W. Deutsch, S. A. Burrell, R. A. Kann, M. Lee,
Jr., M. Lichterman, R. E. Lindgren, F. L. Loewenheim, R.
W. Van Wagenen, Political Community and the North
Atlantic Area (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957),
Edward Shils, "The Military in the Political Development of the New States," in John J. Johnson, The Role of
the Military in Underdeveloped Countries (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962), p. 14.
J. Hector St. John Crèvecoeur, Letters from an American Farmer (New York: Dolphin Books, n.d.), pp. 46-47.
Carl Bridenbaugh, Rebels and Gentlemen. Philadelphia
in the Age of Franklin (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock,
See John Plamenatz, On Alien Rule and Self Government (New York: Longmans, Green, 1960), pp. 47-48.
Shils, "The Military ... ," op. cit., p. 40.
James R. Jacobs, The Beginning of the U.S. Army, 1783-1812 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947);
see also Deutsch et al., Political Community and the North
Atlantic Area, p. 26.
What then is the American, this new man ... ? He is
an American, who leaving behind him all his ancient
prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new
mode of life he has embraced.... He becomes an American
by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma
Mater. The American is a new man, who acts upon new
principles; he must therefore entertain new ideas and form
new opinions." Crèvecoeur, Letters from an American
Farmer, pp. 49-50.
Max Weber, "The Protestant Sects and the Spirit of
Capitalism," in Essays in Sociology, translated by Hans
Gerth and C. W. Mills (New York: Oxford University Press,
1946), pp. 309, 313.
Robin Williams, American Society (New York: Knopf,
1957), p. 313.
Richard Schlatter, "The Puritan Strain," in John
Higham, ed., The Reconstruction of American History (New
York: Harper, 1962), pp. 39-42. See also Bernard Bailyn, Education in the Forming of American Society (Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press, 1960), for a discussion
of the influence which the multiplication of numerous sects
by the eve of the Revolution had upon the spread of education. The promotional and propagandizing possibilities of
education made it an instrument of survival among competing sects. "Sectarian groups, without regard to the intellectual complexity of their doctrine or to their views on
the value of learning to religion, became dynamic elements
in the spread of education, spawning schools of all sorts,
continuously, competitively in all their settlements; carrying
education into the remote frontiers." Bailyn, pp. 40-41.
"What strikes one most forcibly about the Puritans'
efforts in education is the expectation of uniformity. Every
family, without regard to its fortunes and the accomplishment of its head, and every town, without regard to its
condition or resources, was expected to provide an equal
minimum of education—for who, in what place, should be
exempt from the essential work of life? ... the quest for
salvation ... this was an occupation without limit, in the
proper training for which all were expected to join equally,
without regard to natural ability and worldly circumstance."
Bailyn, op. cit., p. 81.
Bureau of the Census, A Statistical Abstract Supplement, Historical Statistics of the U.S. Colonial Times to 1957
(Washington: 1957), p. 214. The census of 1840 was the first
to report literacy.
Tocqueville, Democracy in America, I, 316.
Williams, American Society, p. 312.
G. M. Trevelyan, History of England (Garden City,
N.Y.: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1954), II, 143-144.
Schlatter, "The Puritan Strain," op. cit., p. 42.
Rossiter, Conservatism in America (New York:
Vintage, 1962), pp. 201-202.
Thistlethwaite, The Great Experiment (New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1955), pp. 319-320.