Political Sociology: A Reader

By S. N. Eisenstadt | Go to book overview
die Gesetzgeber," in: Freiheit der Persönlichkeit (series of broadcasts by a team of lecturers), Kroner, Stuttgart, 1958.
3.
S. Landshut, "Wandlungen der parlamentarische Demokratie," Hamburger Jahrbuch, Year 4, pp. 150-162.
4.
Ibid., p. 157.
5.
Ibid., p. 159.
6.
Ibid., p. 161.
7.
See, for example, Parliamentary Reform, 1933-58; a Survey of Suggested Reforms, Hansard Society for Parliamentary Government, 1956.
8.
J. H. Kaiser, Die Repräsentation organisierter Interessen, Berlin, Duncker und Humblot, 1956; valuable work which supersedes all earlier ones on the same subject.
9.
Carl Joachim Friedrich, Demokratie als Herrschafts- und Lebensform, Heidelberg, Quelle und Meyer, 1959, Chapter VII. A development of some lectures given in Heidelberg, based on his previous book, The New Belief in the Common Man.
10.
Bibliography on the subject is not scarce. There is a concise and very instructive study by Gunnar Heckscher, "Pluralist Democracy: the Swedish Experience," Social Research, December 1948. On the other hand, I am unacquainted (a common misfortune for intellectuals in our part of the world) with another book by this author which has been translated into French, bearing the extremely explicit title: Démocracie Efficace: l'Expérience Politique et Sociale des Pays Scandinaves (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1957).
11.
G. Myrdal, Beyond the Welfare State, New Haven (Conn.), Yale University Press, 1960.
12.
Ibid., p. 97.
13.
R. M. Titmuss, Essays on the Welfare State, London, Allen and Unwin, 1958.
14.
E. Forsthoff, Verfassungsprobleme der Sozialstaats, 1953.
15.
Some interesting material on this subject has been collected in a book by the Chilean economist Luis Escobar Cerdá, Organización para el Desarrollo Económico, Santiago de Chile, Editorial Universitaria S.A., 1961. However, the task is only at its beginning.
16.
Karl Jaspers, Die Atombombe und die Zukunft des Menschen, Munich, R. Piper, 1948, p. 441.
17.
R. Braibanti and J. J. Spengler, eds., Tradition, Values, and Socioeconomic Development, Duke University Press, 1961, p. 139.
18.
David E. Apter and C. Rosberg, "Some Models of Political Change in Contemporary Africa" in: The Political Economy of Contemporary Africa, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Social and Behavioral Sciences, edited by D. P. Ray, 1959, and in other writings, especially by the first of these authors.
19.
See Almond and Coleman, eds., The Politics of the Developing Areas, Princeton University Press, 1960.
20.
El Desarrollo Económico Programado y la Organización Política (ST/ECLA/CONF.6/L.C-2b and Add.1).
21.
Boletin Económico de América Latina, VI, No. 1 (March 1961), p. 64.
22.
See A. Bergstrdsser, Führung in der modernen Welt, Freiburg, Rombach, 1961.
23.
Lectures at the University of Córdoba, Argentina, mentioned earlier.
24.
See an excellent general account by Alfred Christmann, "Die Gewerkschaften in der industriellen Gesellschaft," in: Hamburger Jahrbuch, Year. 5.
25.
André Philip, "Les Syndicats et la Démocratie Économique," Revue de l'Institut de Sociologie, Brussels, Nos. 1-2, 1961.
26.
The journal of the Institut Solvay (1961, Abs. 1-2) contains a number of contributions to a symposium held in Geneva (May 1960) on this subject. Some are very valuable. But for a Latin American, the most interesting perhaps is that by Alain Touraine, "Situations Ouvrières et Types de Démocratie Economique"—not only, of course, because he expressly mentions some Spanish-American phenomena (loc. cit., p. 40).

∥ b. AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES

84
An Authoritarian Regime: Spain

Juan J. Linz

Before defining an authoritarian regime, let us refer briefly to the conceptions of democracy and totalitarianism from which we start in our compara‐

tive analysis. This is particularly important since many authoritarian systems claim to be "organic," "basic," "selective," or "guided" democracies, or at least to govern for the people, if not in fact to be "people's" democracies. We consider a government democratic if it supplies regular constitutional opportunities for peaceful competition for political power

____________________
From Juan J. Linz, "An Authoritarian Regime: Spain," in Erik Allardt and Yrjo Littunen, eds., Cleavages, Ideologies and Party Systems (Helsinki: Transactions of the Westermarck Society, 1964), X, 295-297, 323-331, 334-341. Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

-521-

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