Political Sociology: A Reader

By S. N. Eisenstadt | Go to book overview

other combination of forces and factors which may be brought into play.

But is there any reason for confidence that the kind of conditions which surrounded democracy in a few countries at a given time in history will produce democracy elsewhere at a different time; or are the people of many countries going to be prepared to let their political affairs be run for them by essentially self-selected elites, shaken up from time to time by revolutionary outbursts?

For the foreseeable future, as the armed forces of the new countries grow, the taking over of governments by the military will be a more and more frequent occurrence. Although Ayub Khan has endowed Pakistan with basic democracies, for the military regimes as for the one-party one-man governments the return to liberal parliamentary democracy of the Western type is on the whole less rather than more likely to come to pass.


NOTES
1.
See my From Empire to Nation (Cambridge, Massachusetts : Harvard University Press, 1960).
2.
Robert E. Ward has made a brief and suggestive inquiry into the meaning of political modernization in the opening pages of his "Political Modernization and Political Culture in Japan," World Politics (July 1963), pp. 569-596.
3.
Edward Shils, Political Development in the New States (Gravenhage, Mouton & Co., 1962), p. 30.
4.
West Africa, March 29, 1958, p. 304.
5.
Cabinet Government (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1937), p. 15.
6.
Cited by Susan and Peter Ritner, "Africa's Constitutional Malarky," New Leader, June 10, 1963, p. 20.
7.
Cited by Gerald S. Maryanov, Decentralization in Indonesia as a Political Problem (Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 1958), pp. 49-50.
8.
Ghana Today, June 6, 1962. He continued on to contend that only the mistakes a government made justified an opposition; therefore, to say that an opposition is necessary for democracy implies that a government must make mistakes to allow the opposition to stay; which has the effect of destroying democracy.
9.
Democracy and the Party System, pp. 14-15. (This is a pamphlet written by Nyerere, and published, without date, by the Tanganyika Standard Limited, Dar es Salaam.)
10.
The Ideologies of the Developing Nations, edited by Paul E. Sigmund (New York: Praeger, 1963), p. 176. A more radical version was put forward by Sékou Touré: "... if the dictatorship exerted by the government is the direct emanation of the whole of the people, dictatorship is of a democratic nature and the State is a democratic State, democracy being the exercise, by the people, of National Sovereignty." Towards Full Re-Africanization (Paris, Présence Africaine, 1959), p. 28.
11.
Jean Lacouture and Jean Baumier, Le poids du tiers monde (Paris, Arthaud, 1962), p. 172. The New York Times Book Review, July 21, 1963, carries on its front page a picture of a wall in Guayaquil, Ecuador, on which is crudely scrawled: "130 anos de elecciones—130 anos de MISERIA."
12.
Cited by Carl G. Rosberg, Jr., "Decocracy and the New African States" in African Affairs, Number Two (St. Antony's Papers, Number 15), edited by Kenneth Kirkwood (London, Chatto & Windus, 1963), p. 30.
13.
Cited from Afrique-Action, October 7, 1961, by Clement Moore in an unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1963.
14.
West Africa, June 22, 1963, p. 703.
15.
"The Party System in Africa," Foreign Affairs, July, 1963, p. 653.
16.
Democracy and the Party System, p. 7.

94
Politics, Social Structure, and Military Intervention
in Latin America

Gino Germani

Kalman Silvert

The recent politico-military events of Turkey, Pakistan, Egypt, and even France demonstrate that the application of unabashed armed might to the solution of civic problems is not peculiar to Latin

America, nor indeed a phenomenon to be correlated only with economic underdevelopment. Public violence and political instability in Latin America have all too often been treated either as merely comic or else a manifestation of "spirit," "temperament," or "Latin blood." Riots in the streets of Buenos Aires are no less tragic than riots in the streets of Algiers —and no less related to the basic facts of social dis

____________________
From Gino Germani and Kalman Silvert, "Politics, Social Structure, and Military Intervention in Latin America," European Journal of Sociology, II, No. 1 (1961), 62-67, 76-81. Reprinted in abridged form by permission of the publisher and the authors.

-596-

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