Schooling Students Placed at Risk: Research, Policy, and Practice in the Education of Poor and Minority Adolescents

By Mavis G. Sanders | Go to book overview

proficiency provide an initial validation of the TDMS model and its belief that a challenging instructional program, sufficiently supported and implemented schoolwide, can lead to large and widely distributed achievement gains in schools that serve young adolescents placed at risk.

Consequently, these early results leave us hopeful that challenges raised by the leaders of the major middle school reform initiatives can be met. It will not be easy. Our own experience confirms that it will require constant attention at multiple levels ( Useem, Christman, Gold, & Simon, 1997) to assure that all students are provided with the learning opportunities, support, and motivation they need in order to succeed. However, our experience also shows that it can be done. The challenge remaining is to produce the same encouraging achievement results elsewhere as this school reform model is extended to more middle schools.


REFERENCES

American Federation of Teachers. ( 1992). U.S. education: The task before us. American Educator, 16( 4), 19-30.

Arhar J. ( 1997). The effects of interdisciplinary teaming on teachers and students. In J. L. Irvin (Ed.), What current research says to the middle level practitioner (pp. 49-56). Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association.

Balfanz R. ( 1997, March). Mathematics for all in two urban schools: A view from the trenches. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.

Balfanz R., & MacIver D. ( 1998). The school district's role in creating high performing urban middle schools. Baltimore: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk.

Balfanz R., Plank S. B., MacIver D. J., & Ryan D. (In press). Achieving algebra for all with a facilitated instructional program: First year results of the talent development middle school mathematics program. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Social Organization of Schools.

Beaton A. E., Mullis I. V. S., Martin M. O., Gonzalez E. J., Kelly D. L., & Smith T. A. ( 1996). Mathematics achievement in the middle school years. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College's TIMSS International Study Center.

Bruer J. T. ( 1994). Schools for thought: A science of learning in the classroom. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bryk A. S., Lee L. E., & Holland P. B. ( 1993). Catholic schools and the common good. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. ( 1989). Turning points: Preparing American youth for the 21st century. Washington, DC: Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development.

Cohen D. K. ( 1996). Rewarding teachers for student performance. In S. H. Fuhrman & J. A. O'Day (Eds.), Rewards and reform: Creating educational incentives that work (pp. 60- 112). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cohen D. K., Wilson S., & Hill H. ( 1997, March). Teaching and learning mathematics in California. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research,

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