The Hunchback's Tailor: Giovanni Giolitti and Liberal Italy from the Challenge of Mass Politics to the Rise of Fascism, 1882-1922

By Alexander De Grand | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
For an analysis of the crisis of parliamentary parties, Paolo Farnetti, “La crisi della democrazia italiana e l’avvento del fascismo, 1919–1922,” Rivista italiana di scienza politica, 2 (April 1975), 45–82, esp. 54–60.
2.
Mosca to Ferrero, June 15, 1920, in Gaetano Mosca, Gaetano Mosca-Guglielmo Ferrero: Carteggio 1896–1934 (Milan: Giuffrè, 1980), pp. 301–302. The reformist Il Tempo viewed Giolitti as “the last liberal experiment offered to the country.” Luigi Ambrosini, “Il presidente,” Il Tempo, June 15, 1920. Ambrosini, Giolitti’s press secretary, worked with Catholics and Socialists. For the consensus of the business elite in Turin, Valerio Castronovo, Giovanni Agnelli e la FIAT (Turin: UTET, 1977), pp. 162–163.
3.
“Conversazione telefonica fra il senatore Albertini a Milano e il sottosegretario alle Finanze Amendola a Roma,” June 12, 1920, in Giovanni Giolitti, Quarant’anni di politica italiana, ed. Piero d’Angiolini, Claudio Pavone, and Giampiero Carocci (Milan: Feltrinelli, 1962), vol. 3, p. 275 (hereafter 40 anni); Ottavio Barié, Luigi Albertini (Turin: UTET, 1972), pp. 405–408; Castronovo, Giovanni Agnelli, p. 168.
4.
“I Nazionalisti e il nuovo ministero,” Idea nazionale, June 15, 1920. The moderation of the Idea nazionale coincided with efforts by the Perrone brothers to reach out to Giolitti. The survival of Ansaldo and the Banca Italiana di Sconto depended on the government. Pio Perrone to Giolitti, July 23, 1920, in 40 anni, vol. 3, pp. 278–279; Pio Perrone to Vilfredo Pareto, August 12, 1920, Archivio Centrale delle Stato, Rome (ACS), Carte Nitti, busta, 112, fasc. 1271. Giolitti was well aware of the Perrone involvement in Idea nazionale.See“Appunto sulla Società editrice dell’ nazionale,” September 28, 1920, in 40 anni, vol. 3, pp. 286–287; Valerio Castronovo, La Stampa italiana nell’età liberale (Bari: Laterza, 1970), pp. 298–299. For the Fascist position, Giorgio Rumi, Alle origini della politica estera fascista (1918–1923) (Bari: Laterza, 1968), pp. 89–91.
5.
Ruffini to Albertini, June 17, 1920, in Luigi Albertini, Epistolario, ed. Ottavio Barié (Milan: Mondadori, 1968), vol. 3, pp. 1402–1403. The Corriere reported that Giolitti seemed to be considering Sonnino for the government—an unlikely possibility. “L’incarico ufficioso a Giolitti per la soluzione della crisi,” Corriere della sera, June 12, 1920.
6.
Salvemini to Ugo Ojetti, June 14, 1920, in Gaetano Salvemini, Carteggio 1914–1920 (Bari: Laterza, 1984), p. 546. After having rejected Nitti’s offer of a nomination to the Senate, Sonnino accepted it from Giolitti in October 1920. As part of a larger strategy to heal the rift between neutralists and interventionists, Giolitti appointed to the Senate old antagonists Alberto Bergamini, Salvatore Barzilai, Antonio Fradeletto, and Luigi Rava, as well as allies Pietro Bertolini and the prefects Giacomo Vigliani and Paolino Taddei. “I sessanta nuovi senatori,” La Stampa, October 4, 1920; “I nuovi senatori saranno 49,” Corriere della sera, October 3, 1920.
7.
Essential to the success was the inclusion of the Catholic Filippo Meda, the leader of the pro-Giolittian wing of the Popular Party, as Treasury minister. Meda to Stringher, Archivio Storica della Banca d’Italia, Rome (Arch. Storia BdI), Carte Stringher, busta 22, sez. 401, fasc. 1, sottofasc. (sf.) 2. The Public Instruction Ministry went to Benedetto Croce after he gave assurances that he would accept the Catholic position on parity between state and private schools in the examinations leading to the university. Alfredo Frassati, “Giolitti dopo la guerra,” Corriere della sera, May 24, 1958; Alberto Frassati,Giolitti (Florence: Parenti, 1957), pp. 28–29; Carlo Vallauri, Il governo Giolitti e l’occupazione della

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