Housing Policy Systems in South and East Asia

By Mohammed Razali Agus; John Doling et al. | Go to book overview

9
Indonesia
Fashbir Noor Sidin

Introduction

Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous country with the total population expected to reach 210 million by the early years of the present century. However, the land mass, spread over numerous islands, is large so that overall densities are low and the majority of the population lives in rural areas in small towns and villages (Fashbir Noor Sidin 1999a). The population is extremely diverse with some 250 distinct languages and 300 ethnic groups (Hardoy and Satterthwaite 1981). Agriculture remains the backbone and source of livelihood for around 60 per cent of its people. With economic growth, particularly since the start of the Suharto regime in 1966, the reliance on agriculture has been declining. The development of an industrial base has largely been centred in the towns and cities, but this has resulted in a gap between housing supply and the needs of the population. The shortages are particularly acute in the largest urban areas that are currently expected to absorb around 2.2 million new residents every year (Fashbir Noor Sidin 2000a). The result is that ‘although incomes may be higher, infrastructure and service provision is little better and the housing conditions are the most overcrowded in the world’ (Hardoy and Satterthwaite 1981: 62). In similar vein, Chatterjee (1979: 1) commented that ‘the litany is familiar – the squalor of rapidly proliferating slums, congestion in streets, excessive pollution of land and air, inadequate water supply and sewer systems’. Yet, the urban population has continued to grow at about twice the overall growth rate, so that the proportion of the population living in urban areas is expected soon to reach 40 per cent. Since average household size is expected to decline to below the present 4.3 persons, the number of new urban

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Housing Policy Systems in South and East Asia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • List of Tables viii
  • List of Figures x
  • List of Contributors xi
  • Foreword xii
  • References xvi
  • 1 - Asian Housing Policy: Similarities and Differences 1
  • Note *
  • References 18
  • 2 - Japan 20
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 3 - Singapore 38
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 4 - Hong Kong 60
  • Notes 80
  • References 82
  • 5 - Taiwan 84
  • Notes *
  • References *
  • 6 - Korea 104
  • References *
  • 7 - Malaysia 127
  • Note *
  • References *
  • 8 - Thailand 146
  • Note *
  • References *
  • 9 - Indonesia 161
  • References *
  • 10 - The South and East Asian Housing Policy Model 178
  • References *
  • Index 189
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