Encyclopedia of African American Business History

By Juliet E. K. Walker | Go to book overview

N

NAACP ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES. Formed in 1909 as a direct response to racial violence in America, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for years relied on a unique legal and legislative strategy to combat racial discrimination and achieve full equality in all sectors of American society. Through trial and appellate court action, government lobbying, and public demonstrations, the NAACP influenced positive change in school desegregation, voting rights, public accommodations, and open housing.

In recent years, NAACP increasingly has devoted its resources to economic empowerment. The organization’s leadership has viewed this focus as the natural outgrowth of its successful push for social and legal equality throughout this century. With diminished enthusiasm for public support of economic development for African Americans, the NAACP Board of Directors launched a program strategy in 1981 focusing on private sector support to promote the growth and development of entrepreneurship and employment opportunities among blacks through a couple of key initiatives.

A central initiative in this regard has been the Operation Fair Share program, which was created in the early 1980s. The principal aim of Operation Fair Share is to ensure that a ‘‘fair share’’ of the money spent by African American consumers will be used by major corporations to benefit blacks in the areas of job development and business opportunities. Through this program, voluntary agreements are negotiated with major corporations to identify goals for each of several Fair Share objectives, which include: (1) establishment of minority vendor programs aimed at increasing the purchase of goods and services provided by black-

-397-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Encyclopedia of African American Business History
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • A Note on Using the Encyclopedia xi
  • Introduction xiii
  • A 1
  • B 54
  • C 124
  • D 178
  • E 198
  • F 226
  • G 267
  • H 282
  • I 293
  • J 325
  • K 351
  • L 355
  • M 365
  • N 397
  • O 439
  • P 443
  • R 463
  • S 480
  • T 553
  • U 575
  • W 578
  • Chronology of Black Business History 615
  • Select Bibliography 649
  • Index 661
  • About the Editor and Contributors 715
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 721

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.