Individual Freedoms & State Security in the African Context: The Case of Zimbabwe

By John Hatchard | Go to book overview
Save to active project

3 The State of Emergency
in Zimbabwe

The New Constitutional Structure

In order to appreciate the declared reasons for the state of emergency in Zimbabwe, a brief introduction to the new constitutional structure in the country is appropriate.

Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the Lancaster House conference was that the talks produced a settlement which led to a peaceful transition to majority rule. Thus on 18 April 1980 Zimbabwe became independent and was admitted into the United Nations and the Commonwealth with effect from that date. The new Constitution of Zimbabwe provided for a non-executive President with powers and functions resembling those of the British monarch, a Prime Minister and a Cabinet responsible to Parliament. The legislature was a bi-cameral body consisting of a popularly elected House of Assembly and an indirectly elected Senate which merely had a delaying power as regards the passing of legislation. The independence of the judiciary was also recognised. Individual freedoms were protected by a Declaration of Rights which was entrenched and made fully justiciable.

The settlement provided for the election of 80 common roll members to the 100 seat House of Assembly. The parties forming the Patriotic Front fought the elections separately. ZANU(PF) (as the party became known) 1 led by Robert Mugabe won 57 seats and accordingly he was appointed Prime Minister. ZAPU (now known as PF-ZAPU) led by Joshua Nkomo won 20 seats while the UANC won just three, thus underlining the fraudulent nature of the internal settlement. 2 The Rhodesia Front party won all the 20 seats reserved for whites. The make-up of the legislature was later radically altered with the abolition of the white roll seats, the establishment of a uni-cameral body, and the enlargement of the membership to 150. At all times, the ruling party enjoyed a commanding majority.

The indirectly elected President had largely ceremonial powers with political power being vested in the Prime Minister and a Cabinet made up of ministers appointed by the President acting on the advice of the Prime Minister. In only a strictly limited number of circumstances was the President able to act independently and these mainly related to the appointment or removal of the Prime Minister. The powers were only important in the event of a hung Parliament and the commanding majority of ZANU(PF) thus rendered them superfluous. This left the President as something of a figurehead although from time to time he was able to perform a useful advisory role. 3 The establishment of an executive President was always the goal of ZANU(PF) and in 1987 major constitutional changes 4 brought this about with Robert Mugabe being elected President. 5

The Constitution provides that the President may proclaim at any time that a state of emergency exists or that a situation exists which, if allowed to continue, may lead to a state of emergency. 6 The proclamation may relate to the whole or part of the country. This action requires the approval of more than one half of the total membership of Parliament within fourteen days, failing which it ceases to have effect and the President must revoke

-16-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Individual Freedoms & State Security in the African Context: The Case of Zimbabwe
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 209

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.