International Relations in the Ancient Near East, 1600-1100 B.C.

By Mario Liverani | Go to book overview

17
The Battle of Megiddo

The description of the minimal nucleus, the ‘simple form’ of the battle array in the Late Bronze age, is provided by a Hittite text, a passage in the Annals of Tudhaliya II: ‘The city of Tiwara drew up its army against me: behind the army was a wood, and a river was flowing beyond. And I, Tudhaliya, I went to battle against it, and the gods gave it to me.’ 1 The roles are clearly distinguished: one army is on the defensive, the other has to attack. The defenders are protected on two sides: the forest (in other cases a mountain, or a walled town), which is in their rear and provides a route of escape should the attack be successful; and the river, which constitutes a natural obstacle against the advance of the attacking army. The latter must launch a frontal assault, force a crossing of the river, and then overwhelm the enemy. In another text the pattern is also clear. The Kashka army is drawn up behind a river, which it assumes will give it protection against attack by the king, Hattushili III. However, despite this and despite the arrows and rocks which they shoot at him, the king is sheltered by the shield of the goddess Shaushga and is able to cross the river unhurt, and to penetrate the enemy array ‘with one chariot only’. 2

Viewed geometrically, the battle is the penetration of a horizontal line by a vertical wedge, and this impression is stronger when the defenders are mainly footsoldiers and the attackers are a chariot squadron. From the military point of view the defenders have to concentrate their strength at the critical moment when the attackers are seeking to cross the natural obstacle; otherwise the battle is won by the impetus of the attack and the defenders must withdraw in order to avoid major casualties. Therefore the real task is to hold (on one side) or to force (on the other) the defensive line. From the ideological point of view, the defenders are cautious and fearful: they rely on natural or artificial obstacles, they prearrange an

-116-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Relations in the Ancient Near East, 1600-1100 B.C.
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 241

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.