International Relations in the Ancient Near East, 1600-1100 B.C.

By Mario Liverani | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction

1
Cf., for example, A. B. Bozeman, Politics and Culture in International Society (New Brunswick and London, 1994).
2
The question is explicitly or implicitly present in most contributions to R. Cohen and R. Westbrook (eds), Amarna Diplomacy (Baltimore and London, 2000).
3
W. L. Moran, The Amarna Letters (Baltimore and London, 1992); M. Liverani, Le lettere di el-Amarna, I–II (Brescia, 1998–9).
4
E. Laroche, Catalogue des textes hittites (Paris, 1971).
5
P. Bordreuil and D. Pardee, La trouvaille épigraphique de l'Ougarit (Paris, 1989).
6
J. M. Durand, Documents épistolaires du palais de Mari, I–III (Paris, 1997–2000).
7
A. Archi (and others), Archivi Reali di Ebla, I–XI (Rome, 1985–93).
8
Quite recently, the volume on Amarna Diplomacy (quoted above) has the subtitle The Beginnings of International Relations.
9
G. R. Berridge in Amarna Diplomacy, pp. 212–24.
10
Cf. M. Rowlands, M. Larsen and K. Kristiansen (eds), Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World (Cambridge, 1987), pp. 66–73.
11
On trade and merchants in the Late Bronze period cf. J. D. Muhly, C. Zaccagnini, G. Kestemont and M. Heltzer in Iraq, 39 (1977), pp. 73–82, 171–89, 191–201, 203–11.
12
Kitchen, Suppiluliuma; E. Hornung, Untersuchungen zur Chronologie und Geschichte des Neuen Reiches (Wiesbaden, 1964); D. B. Redford, History and Chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (Toronto, 1967); C. Kühne, Die Chronologie der internationalen Korrespondenz von El-Amarna (Neukirchen, 1973); R. Krauss, Das Ende der Amarnazeit (Hildesheim, 1978); P. Aström (ed.), High, Middle or Low?, I–II (Gothenburg, 1987).
13
V. Korošec, International Relations According to Cuneiform Reports from Tall al-Amarna and Hittite State Archives (Ljubljana, 1950) still remains the more general work; G. Kestemont, Diplomatique et droit international en Asie Occidentale (1600–1200 av. J. C.) (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1974) is very detailed yet difficult to use in a historical perspective (see below).
14
Apart from Egypt and Hatti (whose ‘New Kingdoms’ are a large part in any general treatment of those regions), some major monographs are to be mentioned here. For Babylonia: J. A. Brinkman, Materials and Studies for Kassite History, I (Chicago, 1976). For Upper Mesopotamia: Harrak, Hanigalbat. For Syria: H. Klengel, Geschichte Syriens im 2. Jahrtausend v.u.Z., I–III (Berlin, 1965–70); M. Liverani (ed.), La Siria nel tardo bronzo (Rome, 1969).
15
Helck, Beziehungen; R. Giveon, The Impact of Egypt on Canaan (Göttingen, 1978); D. B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times (Princeton, NJ, 1992).
16
The Syro-Palestinian history of the Late Bronze period is treated in chapters by W. F. Albright (II.xx; II.xxxiii), M. S. Drower (II.x.1–2; II.xxi b), A. Goetze (II.xvii; II.xxiv), K. Kenyon (II.xi), H. J. Franken (II.xxvi b), O. Eissfeldt (II.xxvi

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International Relations in the Ancient Near East, 1600-1100 B.C.
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I - Territory and Borders 15
  • 1 - Inner vs. Outer Territory 17
  • 2 - Universal Control 23
  • 3 - The Boundaries of the World 29
  • 4 - Symbolic Attainment of the World Border 34
  • 5 - The Coexistence of Different States 38
  • 6 - Moving Borders 46
  • 7 - The Boundary as a Watershed for Taxation 52
  • 8 - The Boundary as a Watershed for Responsibilities 57
  • 9 - Runaways and Extradition 66
  • 10 - Messengers and ‘Ambassadors’ 71
  • Part II - War and Alliance 77
  • 11 - The One Against Many 79
  • 12 - War as Elimination of the Rebels 86
  • 13 - Conquest as a Cosmic Organization 91
  • 14 - Peace as Submission 97
  • 15 - Ordeal by War 101
  • 16 - The Rules of War 108
  • 17 - The Battle of Megiddo 116
  • 18 - Peace as Mutual Recognition 122
  • 19 - The Ideology of Protection 128
  • 20 - The Ideology of Brotherhood 135
  • Part III - Circulation of Goods 139
  • 21 - Priority and Continuity of the Redistributive Pattern 141
  • 22 - Intervention of the Reciprocal Pattern 146
  • 23 - Accumulation vs. Circulation 151
  • 24 - Self-Sufficiency vs. Interdependence 155
  • 25 - The Ideology of Life 160
  • 26 - Hatshepsut and Punt: Trade or Tribute? 166
  • 27 - Wen-Amun and Zakar-Ba'Al: Gift or Trade? 170
  • 28 - The Annals of Tuthmosis Iii: Tribute or Gift? 176
  • 29 - The Origins of Tribute 183
  • 30 - Equal vs. Unequal Marriages 189
  • 31 - Conclusions 196
  • Chronologies 203
  • Notes 205
  • Index 233
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