This volume was written in the summer and autumn of 2000 when I was Senior Economic Advisor at the Brussels office of the World Bank. It is partly based on research I started in 1998–99 when I was Special Economic Advisor to the WTO in Geneva, and partly on personal experiences when working on trade and development at the two institutions. The views expressed are solely my own and should not be attributed to either the World Bank or the WTO. Many staff members of these institutions, however, contributed to the completion of this project. I am especially grateful to David Tarr of the World Bank and Peter Tulloch of the WTO for their comments on earlier drafts of several chapters. I would also like to thank Amar Breckenridge of the WTO, who contributed material on the early treatment of the developing countries in GATT, and Cato Adrian, also of the WTO, for helpful suggestions on issues of WTO accession.
I have benefited greatly from the contributions of several people whose work involves addressing the constraints that developing countries face in the WTO and more generally in world trade. In this connection I want to thank Esperenza Duran (Director of AITIC) for providing me with valuable insights into the problems that delegations from less-advantaged countries face when participating in the WTO, and for permission to use material from an article we coauthored on TRIPs; Otto Genee (Deputy Permanent Representative of the Netherlands to the WTO and driving force at the Advisory Center on WTO law) for helping me to understand the workings of developed-country delegations in Geneva, as well as the difficulties developing countries face in the WTO dispute settlement process; and Eveline Herfkens for relating her experiences on the obstacles that must be overcome in order to inject even a small degree of coherence into the policies of the international community on aid and trade towards the developing countries.
I reserve my greatest thanks for Rachael Taylor of the World Bank's office in Brussels. She provided immense help, first with research assistance and data development, especially for Chapter 2, and later in preparing this volume for publication. Neither she nor any of the others who helped with the volume are responsible for any errors or inaccuracies that may remain.
Finally, I wish to thank the Werner Publishing Company for permission to use material from an article I coauthored with E. Duran on ‘Intellectual