Notes
1
The cavaquinho is a four-coursed string instrument which looks like a ukulele.
2
All translations are my own unless otherwise stated.
3
The Portuguese viola was most commonly described as a six double-coursed string instrument shaped like the modern guitar, though it was somewhat smaller and had a wider‘waist’. This instrument was the forerunner of the Brazilian viola, but in its most common forms in Brazil today the viola is a five doublecoursed instrument with a much narrower waist than the Portuguese prototype; tuning systems for the instrument vary considerably. In Brazil the lute left its mark on the bandola and the much smaller bandolim. Although bandolas have become virtually obsolete, the bandolim, a mandolin-type instrument with four double courses typically tuned in fifths (g-d-a-e), is still used as a melody instrument in several Brazilian musical styles. The machete is the antecedent of the cavaquinho, which, like its Portuguese counterpart, is shaped like a small guitar and has four single courses. In Brazil it is generally played with a plectrum to provide an harmonic percussive accompaniment to a number of styles, and its two most common tunings are d-g-b-d and d-g-b-e. The guitarra, a singlecoursed instrument, was, of course, the forerunner of the guitar, which in Brazil came to be known as the violdo (large viola). It was standardized in the mid nineteenth century, and today the Brazilian violdo is virtually identical to the acoustic Spanish guitar.
4
The original dates of Pereira's manuscripts are not known, but he was born in 1652 in Bahia and died in Lisbon some time after 1733 (Tinhorao 1990: 68).
5
Because the modinha is seen to be central to the development of a Brazilian national musical culture, it has been the object of considerable research, including major studies by Mario de Andrade (1980 [1930]), Mozart de Araujo (1963) and Joao Batista Siqueira (1979) as well as numerous studies of lesser breadth. A survey of this vast literature has been conducted recently by Manuel Veiga (1998).
6
The lyrics to many of his songs were first published in two volumes, called Viola de Leredo, between 1798 and 1826; a few scores of his compositions were also made available after they were discovered several decades ago in the Ajuda Library in Lisbon (Behague 1968).
7
On the chow, see: Appleby (1983: 70–3), Schreiner (1993: 85–101), Tinhorao (1986: 103–10; 1997: 107–25), Vasconcelos (1988b) among others.
8
A fast syncopated dance music form of the late nineteenth century commonly viewed as the forerunner of the samba.
9
On the life and work of Villa-Lobos, see: Appleby (1983: 116–38), Behague (1979: 183–204), Horta (1987), Keifer (1986), Mariz (1977) among others.

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