Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-1945

By United States. Bureau Of The Census | Go to book overview

Chapter D. Labor Force, Wages, and Working Conditions (Series D 1-238)

Labor Force: Series D 1-106
D 1-7. Persons 10 years old and over gainfully occupied, in agricultural and in nonagricultural pursuits, decennially, 1820-1940. Source: Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census Reports, Comparative Occupation Statistics for the United States, 1970-1940, p. 142, and Release Series P-9, No. 11. These are census data based on complete enumerations of the population, except as noted below.The 1940 data based on the labor force concept vary from the data obtained under the gainful worker concept in 1930 and earlier years; in part because of differences in definition, and in part because of differences in the types of questions upon which the data were based. The gainful worker statistics were obtained by means of questions regarding occupation rather than employment status. Gainful workers were persons reported as having a gainful occupation, that is, an occupation in which they earned money or a money equivalent, or in which they assisted in the production of marketable goods, regardless of whether they were working or seeking work at the time of the census.The labor force is defined in the 1940 census on the basis of activity during the week of March 24 to 30, and includes only persons who were at work, with a job, seeking work, or on public emergency work in that week. The following are the most important types of persons for whom the 1940 labor force classification differed from the gainful worker classification used in previous censuses:
a. Seasonal workers. —Seasonal workers who were neither working nor seeking work at the time of the census were not included in the 1940 labor force. Such persons were counted as gainful workers in 1930 and earlier years if they reported an occupation.
b. New workers. —Persons without previous work experience seeking work during the census week, that is, new workers, were included in the 1940 labor force; such persons were probably for the most part not counted as gainful workers in earlier censuses. In 1930, however, the number of new workers was probably much smaller than at the time of the 1940 census.
c. Retired and disabled persons. —Persons unable to work and retired workers no longer working or seeking work were excluded from the labor force in the 1940 census. In earlier censuses such persons frequently reported their former occupations and were counted as gainful workers.
d. Inmates of institutions. —In the 1940 census all inmates of penal and mental institutions and homes for the aged, infirm, and needy were excluded from the labor force, regardless of their activity during the census week. In previous censuses inmates of these institutions were reported as painful workers if they performed regular work in the institutions.
The comparison of the 1940 figures with those from earlier censuses is affected also by the fact that some persons who were actually working or seeking work at the time of the 1940 census were not counted as in the labor force because they failed to answer the employment status questions. Also, in earlier censuses many persons who were actually gainful workers were omitted from the enumeration because they failed to report their occupations. For a detailed comparison and analysis of the 1940 and 1930 data on the labor force, employment, and unemployment, see Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census Reports, Estimates of Labor Force, Employment, and Unemployment in the United States, 1940 and 1930.These differences probably do not seriously affect the comparison of the total labor force in 1940 with the total number of gainful workers in 1930 and earlier years, since the groups classified as in the labor force but not counted as gainful workers at least partly offset the groups in which the opposite difference occurred. However, in order to increase the validity of historical comparisons, the following adjustments have been made in the 1940 census figures shown in series D 1-7: New workers have been excluded; children 10 to 13 (estimated) engaged in agricultural and nonagricultural pursuits have been included; persons on public emergency work previously in agricultural pursuits (estimated) have been included; the number of persons classified in agricultural pursuits was revised as a result of the occupation classification revision in 1940. Because of these adjustments, the 1940 data shown here may differ from other published 1940 data.In addition to the above changes, the original census data for 1920, 1910, and 1870 were adjusted for underreporting and overreporting. For a discussion of the adjustments, see Comparative Occupation Statistics for the United States:1870-1940, pp. 137-141.The figures in series D 2-5 for 1820 to 1860 (except 1830) are estimates based on census returns covering most, but not quite all, of the population. The 1830 figures are interpolations between 1820 and 1840.D 8-10. Total and married women in labor force or gainfully occupied, 15 years old and over, decennially, 1890-1940. Source: Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. III, part 1, p. 26, and vol. IV, part 1, p. 90; and Fifteenth Census Reports, Population, vol. IV, p. 68. Figures for 1940 have been revised since original publication. For statement of revision procedure, see Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-50, No. 2. For definitions of labor force and gainfully occupied, see text for series D 1-7.The data on marital status refer to the status at the time the census was taken. A person who was widowed or divorced but has remarried is reported as married. The 1940 census gives separate figures for married females, husband present; and married females, husband absent. The other censuses give only the total of all married females. All the censuses contain data on single, widowed, and divorced females and number in each category who are workers.Because of differences in procedures in the 1910 census, figures for gainfully occupied persons for 1910, especially for women, are too high for exact comparability with those for adjacent census years.D 11-31. Total in labor force, and employment status, 1940- 1945. Source: Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-50, No. 20.For current statistics, see Current Population Reports, "Monthly Report on the Labor Force", issued monthly by the Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. The figures shown here reflect recent revisions ( September 1947) made by the Bureau of the Census in the estimates for months prior to July 1945.Information on the employment status of the population 14 years old and over is obtained by the Bureau of the Census.through personal interviews each month with a sample of about 25,000 households throughout the country selected by scientific sampling methods. The monthly data relate to a particular week of the month, specifically, the calendar week (Sunday to Saturday) which contains the 8th day of the month. The annual average figures shown in series D 11-31 are the arithmetic means of these monthly data.Following are definitions of the terms used in the presentation of these materials:
a. Employed. —Employed persons comprise those who, during each month's survey week are either (1) "At work"—

-55-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-1945
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 363

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.