Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-1945

By United States. Bureau Of The Census | Go to book overview

Chapter G. Minerals and Power (Series G 1-233)

Mining and Minerals: Series G 1-158

G 1-158. General note. All data for these series were provided by the Bureau of Mines of the United States Department of the Interior, with the exception of data shown for series G 6-12. The Bureau of Mines cites for principal reference two annual publications: Mineral Resources of the United States, published annually for the period 1882 to 1931; and Minerals Yearbook, published annually for the period 1932-33 to 1946. These volumes were prepared and issued by the United States Geological Survey from 1882 to 1923 and by the Bureau of Mines from 1924 to 1945.

In the instance of series G 65-130, the descriptive term "production" must be interpreted with caution. In early years, "production" was used loosely; later, it was superseded by a more precise statement of the means of measuring production, such as "shipments," "sales," or "sold or used by producers." Since only a limited number of series can be presented in this volume of historical statistics, that series has been selected, for each mineral, which provides reasonably comparable "production" data as far back in time as possible, and for which value data are also available. Also, the presentation of "production" data for early years and "shipments" or "sales" data for recent years does not mean necessarily that a "production" series is not available for recent periods. Instead, it usually means that the figures labelled "production" in early years are more comparable with the more recent "shipments" or "sales" data than they are with the modern "production" series, as such.


VALUE OF MINERALS AND PRODUCTION INDEXES (G 1-12)

G 1-5. Value of mineral products of the United States, 1880- 1945. Source: For general reference see general note above (series G 1-158); see also Minerals Yearbook, 1945, "Statistical Summary of Mineral Production", p. 33. Total values represent summarizations of data given in commodity chapters of Mineral Resources of the United States and Minerals Yearbook. As far as is practicable, the value of minerals produced is expressed in their first marketable form or in the stage of production thought best to represent the mineral industry. Duplication has been eliminated wherever feasible. Because of the absence of major changes, data are considered comparable for all years. The source volumes should be consulted for discussion of minor changes and other detail.

G 6-8. Indexes of mineral production, 1919-1945. Base: 1935- 1939 average = 100. Source: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. For 1919-1942, see Federal Reserve Index of Industrial Production, October 1943, pp. 43-44 and 98-100; for 1943, see Federal Reserve Bulletin, April 1944, p. 385; for 1944-1945, see Federal Reserve Bulletin, April 1946, p. 423. For a brief description of the method of constructing this index, see text for series J 30-48.

G 9-12. Indexes of physical output in mining, 1899-1939. Base: 1899 = 100. Source: Barger, Harold, and Schurr, Sam H., The Mining Industries, 1899-1939: A Study of Output, Employment and Productivity, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1944, p. 14. Indexes were constructed by combining data on physical output "of as many minerals as possible," with values as weights. For the period since 1919, the indexes cover the output of 1 more than 99 percent of all minerals for which value data are available. Data do not include smelting and refining of metals, the coking of coal, the refining of crude oil, the production of cement, the calcining of gypsum, and the cutting of dimension stone.


FUELS (G 13-64)

G 13-18. Bituminous and anthracite coal production and value, 1807-1945. Source: See detailed listings below. See also series G 154-155 which give total production, bituminous and anthracite combined, and tonnage per man-hour.

G 13-15. Bituminous coal: Production, 1807-1945; value, 1890- 1945. Source: See general note, series G 1-158. For production data from 1807-20 to 1889, see Mineral Resources of the United States, 1923, part II, table 22, p. 549. For production and value data from 1890 to 1945, see Minerals Yearbook, 1946, p. 286. Data for 1945 are preliminary and are derived from records of the Bureau of Mines.

Production figures include the small output of anthracite and semianthracite produced outside of Pennsylvania, and the production of lignite; they exclude data from small mines having an output of less than 1,000 tons per year that sell their output by wagon or truck. In 1944, according to incomplete figures, there were 1,821 small mines producing less than 1,000 tons per year, with a total production of 756,307 net tons (see Minerals Yearbook, 1945, p. 906). Prior to 1890, for years other than census years, production figures were not compiled on the basis of direct returns from operators. The method of compiling figures during these prior years is described as follows on page 11 of Mineral Resources, 1883-1884: "The coal statistics of this volume have been drawn from various sources, including the reports of agents and correspondents of this office, the transportation records of the railroad companies, reports of State Mine Inspectors and of State Geological Surveys, etc." Since 1890 production figures have been compiled on the basis of detailed annual reports furnished by the producers. Data for a small percentage of the output, consisting chiefly of that of small mines, are obtained from the records of the State Mine Departments or from railroad carloadings.

Value data represent dollars received or charged for coal f.o.b. the mines. The value of coal not sold but used by the producer has been estimated at average prices that might have been received if sold commercially. Value figures for 1890 to 1936 inclusive, and 1939, exclude selling expense. Figures for other years include selling expense.

G 16-18. Anthracite coal: Production, 1807-1945; value, 1890- 1945. Source: See general note, series G 1-158. For production data from 1807-20 to 1889, see Mineral Resources of the United States, 1923, part II, table 22, p. 545. For production, and value data from 1890 to 1945, see Minerals Yearbook, 1945, pp. 947, 948.

Pennsylvania anthracite includes all nonbituminous coal mined in Pennsylvania, including that from deep mines, strip pits, and culm banks, and river or creek coal recovered from the streams draining the anthracite fields. Coal purchased by legitimate operators from "bootleg" mines has been included since 1941. Also, for purposes of historical comparison, the statistics include the output of the Bernice Basin in Sullivan County, Pa., although coal of this Basin has been officially classified as semianthracite according to the American Society For Testing Materials Tentative Standard. Anthracite statistics are prepared from an annual canvass by mail of all known legitimate anthracite operations that are active producers. More than 95 percent of the tonnage is reported directly, and the remainder is collected by personal visits or from reliable collateral evidence.

G 19-32. Bituminous coal and lignite mining, 1890-1945. Sources: Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, 1946, p. 286. Series G 13a comprises a segment of series G 13 (bituminous production),

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