Encyclopedia of Literary Modernism

By Paul Poplawski | Go to book overview

N

Naturalism

An extreme form of realism in novels, short stories and plays: naturalist works rejected idealizations of human life and focused instead on the forces of heredity and environment that shape and drive human nature. Naturalist writings are informed by Darwin’s theories of evolution, Comte’s application of biological models to the study of society, and Taine’s application of theories of determinism to literature.

Critics often trace the origins of literary naturalism back to the publication of Germinie Lacerteux by Jules and Edmond Goncourt in 1865. It was another Frenchman, Émile Zola, who formulated a manifesto-piece for naturalism: he wrote “Le roman expérimental” (“The Experimental Novel”) in 1880. Drawing continual parallels between his own literary aims and the aim of experimental medicine, Zola casts the novelist as pathologist and suggests that he study the effects of heredity and environment on character with scientific objectivity. The essay accompanies Zola’s hugely ambitious series of twenty “Rougon-Macquart” novels, in which a family line is traced through several generations.

Naturalist writers frequently set their works in slum areas, depicting modern urban environments and the effects they have on their inhabitants. Important writers associated with naturalism include Guy de Maupassant in France; George Moore and George Gissing in Britain; Theodore Dreiser, Frank Norris, and Stephen Crane in America; Anton Chekhov and Maxim Gorky in Russia. In the theater, dramatic naturalism is linked to the names of Henrik Ibsen, August Strindberg, and Gerhart Hauptmann. Naturalism developed along slightly different lines in Italy, in the “verismo” movement associated with Giovanni Verga in the 1880s. Naturalist writings exercised an important influence on the modernists: Marinetti names Zola among his main influences in the formation of Italian futurism.

Andrew Harrison


Selected Bibliography

Baguley, David. Naturalist Fiction: The Entropic Vision. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.

Furst, Lilian R., and Skrine, Peter N. Naturalism. London: Methuen, 1971.

Nelson, Brian, ed. Naturalism in the European Novel: New Critical Perspectives. New York and Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1992.

Pizer, Donald. The Cambridge Companion to American Realism and Naturalism: Howells to London. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995.

Neo-Impressionism

The neo-impressionist movement (1883–91) treated form and color scientifically. In Georges Seurat’s divisionism (or “pointillism”), natural colors were divided into primary components; when rhythmically juxtaposed on canvas, the complementary patches recombined optically to intensify

-275-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Encyclopedia of Literary Modernism
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • A 1
  • B 15
  • C 36
  • D 67
  • E 87
  • F 102
  • G 157
  • H 169
  • I 191
  • J 206
  • K 221
  • L 223
  • M 246
  • N 275
  • O 282
  • P 293
  • R 342
  • S 369
  • T 417
  • U 434
  • V 439
  • W 442
  • Y 471
  • Selected Bibliography 477
  • Index 481
  • List of Contributors 511
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 516

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.