Strategies for Natural Language Processing

By Wendy G. Lehnert; Martin H. Ringle | Go to book overview

7
Conversation Failure
Martin H. Ringle
Vassar College Bertram C. Bruce
Bolt, Beranek & Newman, Inc.The following is a segment of dialogue in which a professor is explaining to a student how to perform a look-up operation using the programming language APL:
1. P: Looking up a word in a lexicon can be done in a variety of ways. You can look up one word at a time by using the inner product and then using the dyadic iota on the resulting logical vector.
2. S: How would you use the iota?
3. P: You'd take the logical vector as the left-hand argument and a one as the right-hand argument. The number returned would be the position of the first occurrence of one in the vector.
4. S: How would you have a one in the vector? Wouldn't that just have letters in it?
5. P: Do you remember what a logical vector is?
6. S: No.
7. P: Just zeroes and ones. Not numbers. True or false.
8. S: Oh. Okay. I remember now. You'd get a one where the word was found and a zero everywhere else. Right?
9. P: Yes.

A grasp of the meaning of utterances I and 3 depends on an understanding of the term "logical vector" (italicized in utterance 1). The questions raised by the student in utterance 4 alert the professor to the possibility that the student is not clear on the meaning of "logical vector." Utterances 6 to 9 confirm this and clarify the meaning of the term.

-203-

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Strategies for Natural Language Processing
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • Abstracts xvii
  • I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - The State of the Art In Natural-Language Understanding 3
  • Acknowledgments 30
  • References 30
  • II - Implementation Issues 33
  • 2 - Realistic Language Comprehension 37
  • References 53
  • 3 - Natural Communication Between Person and Computer 55
  • Acknowledgments 86
  • References 86
  • 4 - Parsing and Comprehending With Word Experts (a Theory And Its Realization) 89
  • Acknowledgments 147
  • References 147
  • 5 - An Overview of the Frump System 149
  • Acknowledgments 175
  • References 175
  • 6 - A Framework for Conceptual Analyzers 177
  • References 196
  • III - Conversation And Discourse 199
  • 7 - Conversation Failure 203
  • References 220
  • 8 - Towards an Understanding Of Coherence in Discourse 223
  • Acknowledgments 242
  • References 242
  • 9 - Beyond Question Answering 245
  • Acknowledgments 271
  • References 271
  • 10 - Adversary Arguments and The Logic of Personal Attacks 275
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 294
  • IV - Knowledge Representation 295
  • 11 - Inference and Learning In Computer Model of The Development of Language Comprehension in a Young Child 299
  • Acknowledgments 325
  • References 325
  • 12 - Inferring Building Blocks For Knowledge Representation 327
  • Acknowledgments 343
  • References 343
  • 13 - Points: A Theory of the Structure Of Stories in Memory 345
  • References 373
  • 14 - Plot Units: a Narrative Summarization Strategy 375
  • Acknowledgments 411
  • References 411
  • V - Theoretical Issues 413
  • 15 - Metaphor: an Inescapable Phenomenon In Natural-Language Comprehension 415
  • Acknowledgments 432
  • References 433
  • 16 - Context Recognition In Language Cornprehension 435
  • Acknowledgments 453
  • References 453
  • 17 - Reminding and Memory Organization: an Introduction To Mops 455
  • Acknowledgments 493
  • References 493
  • 18 - Some Thoughts on Procedural Semantics 495
  • Acknowledgments 515
  • Notes on Contributors 517
  • Subject Index 523
  • Index 529
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