Strategies for Natural Language Processing

By Wendy G. Lehnert; Martin H. Ringle | Go to book overview

important to do so, and that modest progress towards attaining reasonable goals is currently being made. There is much work to do.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research was supported primarily by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense and was monitored by ONR under Contract No. N00014-77-C0378. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the Defense Advanced Projects Agency or the U.S. Government. The research was also supported in part by the National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada under Operating Grant A9285 and by National Science Foundation Grant IST-8012418. Our thanks go to David Waltz, Harry Tennant, and Brad Goodman for providing and discussing the PLANES transcripts, and to Candy Sidner and Bill Woods for their comments on the chapter. Special thanks go to Norma Peterson for her invaluable help in preparing this chapter.


REFERENCES

Allen J. F. A plan-based approach to speech act recognition (Tech. Rep. 131). Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, January 1979.

Allen J. F., & Perrault C. R. Analyzing intention in dialogues. Artificial Intelligence, 1980, 15( 3), 143-178.

Appelt D. Problem-solving applied to language generation. In Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Philadelphia, Penn., 1980.

Austin J. L. How to do things with words. London: Oxford University Press, 1962.

Brachman R., Bobrow R., Cohen P., Klovstad J., Webber B. L., & Woods W A. Research in natural language understanding (Tech. Rep. 4274). Cambridge, Mass.; Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, August 1979.

Brown G. P. "Characterizing indirect speech acts". American Journal of Computational Linguistics, 1980, 6(3-4), 150-166.

Bruce B. C. Belief systems and language understanding. (Tech. Rep. 2973). Cambridge, Mass.: Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, 1975. (a)

Bruce B. C. Generation as a social action. In Proceedings of the Conference on Theoretical Issues in Natural Language Processing, Cambridge, Mass., June 1975 (b).

Bruce B. C., & Newman D. "Interacting plans". Cognitive Science, 1978, 2, 195-233.

Carbonell J. G., Jr. "POLITICS: Automated ideological reasoning". Cognitive Science, 1978, 2, 27-51.

Clark H. H., & Marshall C. Define reference and mutual knowledge. In A. K. Joshi, B. Webber, & I. A. Sag (Eds.), Elements of discourse understanding. New York: Academic Press, 1981.

Codd E. F. Seven steps to RENDEZVOUS with the casual user. In Proceedings IFIP TC-2 Working Conference on Data Base Management Systems, 179-200, Amsterdam, 1974.

Codd E. F., Arnold R. S., Cadiou J. M., Chang C. L., & Roussopoulos N. RENDEZVOUS VERSION 1: An experimental English-language query formulation system for casual users of relations data bases (Research Rep. RJ2144). IBM Research Laboratory, January 1978.

Cohen P. R. On knowing what to say: Planning speech acts. Doctoral thesis, University of Toronto, January, 1978. (Tech. Rep. No. 118, Dept. of Computer Science.)

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Strategies for Natural Language Processing
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • Abstracts xvii
  • I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - The State of the Art In Natural-Language Understanding 3
  • Acknowledgments 30
  • References 30
  • II - Implementation Issues 33
  • 2 - Realistic Language Comprehension 37
  • References 53
  • 3 - Natural Communication Between Person and Computer 55
  • Acknowledgments 86
  • References 86
  • 4 - Parsing and Comprehending With Word Experts (a Theory And Its Realization) 89
  • Acknowledgments 147
  • References 147
  • 5 - An Overview of the Frump System 149
  • Acknowledgments 175
  • References 175
  • 6 - A Framework for Conceptual Analyzers 177
  • References 196
  • III - Conversation And Discourse 199
  • 7 - Conversation Failure 203
  • References 220
  • 8 - Towards an Understanding Of Coherence in Discourse 223
  • Acknowledgments 242
  • References 242
  • 9 - Beyond Question Answering 245
  • Acknowledgments 271
  • References 271
  • 10 - Adversary Arguments and The Logic of Personal Attacks 275
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 294
  • IV - Knowledge Representation 295
  • 11 - Inference and Learning In Computer Model of The Development of Language Comprehension in a Young Child 299
  • Acknowledgments 325
  • References 325
  • 12 - Inferring Building Blocks For Knowledge Representation 327
  • Acknowledgments 343
  • References 343
  • 13 - Points: A Theory of the Structure Of Stories in Memory 345
  • References 373
  • 14 - Plot Units: a Narrative Summarization Strategy 375
  • Acknowledgments 411
  • References 411
  • V - Theoretical Issues 413
  • 15 - Metaphor: an Inescapable Phenomenon In Natural-Language Comprehension 415
  • Acknowledgments 432
  • References 433
  • 16 - Context Recognition In Language Cornprehension 435
  • Acknowledgments 453
  • References 453
  • 17 - Reminding and Memory Organization: an Introduction To Mops 455
  • Acknowledgments 493
  • References 493
  • 18 - Some Thoughts on Procedural Semantics 495
  • Acknowledgments 515
  • Notes on Contributors 517
  • Subject Index 523
  • Index 529
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