Strategies for Natural Language Processing

By Wendy G. Lehnert; Martin H. Ringle | Go to book overview

stands in opposition to traditional characterizations of language learning, differing both on what constitutes language learning and also on how the process of language learning takes place. Further, it suggests that the primary problems of language learning are not what has usually been assumed. Because the learning algorithms are based on standard concept-learning paradigms ( Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin, 1956), this work suggests that the primary questions that further research should address itself towards are: (1) the representation of meaning and structure in adult-level systems towards which the child is learning; and (2) the question of how children infer the meanings of utterances.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Professor Roger Schank's assistance in the research reported here was invaluable. Thanks to Larry Birnbaum for several valuable suggestions for this chapter, and Dr. Steve Shwartz, Ann Drinan, and Ken Silvestro for commenting on drafts.


REFERENCES

Anglin L. ( 1977) Word, object, and conceptual development. New York: Norton

Benedict H. ( 1975) The role of repetition in language comprehension. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting, Denver, Colorado

Benedict H. ( 1976) Language comprehension in 10 to 16 month-old infants. Thesis, Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven

Bimbaum L., & Selfridge M. ( 1979) Problems in conceptual analysis of natural language (Research Rep. 168). Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven

Bruner J. S., Goodnow J. J., & Austin G. A. ( 1956) A study of thinking. New York: Wiley

Clark E. V., & Clark H. H. ( 1978) Psychology and language. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich

Chomsky N. ( 1965) Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press

Cullingford R. E., Krueger M. W., & Bieukowski M. ( 1981) Automated explanations as a component of a CAD system. To appear in IEEE Trans. SM&C. Special issue on human factors and user assistance in CAD, Nov. 1981

Hoogenraad R., Grieve R., Baldwin P., & Campbell R. ( 1976) "Comprehension as an interactive process". In R. N. Campell & P. T. Smith (Eds.), Recent advances in the psychology of language, New York: Plenum

Riesbeck C. K., & Schank R. C. ( 1976) Comprehension by computer: Expectation-based analysis of sentences in context. (Research Rep. 78). Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven

Schank R. C. ( 1973) "Identification of conceptualizations underlying natural language". In R. C Schank & K. M. Colby (Eds.), Computer models of thought and language. San Fransisco: W H. Freeman

Schank R. C. & Selfridge M. ( 1977) "How to learn/what to learn". In Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge, Mass

Selfridge M. ( 1980) A process model of language acquisition (Computer science Tech. Rep. 172) Yale University, New Haven.

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Strategies for Natural Language Processing
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • Abstracts xvii
  • I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - The State of the Art In Natural-Language Understanding 3
  • Acknowledgments 30
  • References 30
  • II - Implementation Issues 33
  • 2 - Realistic Language Comprehension 37
  • References 53
  • 3 - Natural Communication Between Person and Computer 55
  • Acknowledgments 86
  • References 86
  • 4 - Parsing and Comprehending With Word Experts (a Theory And Its Realization) 89
  • Acknowledgments 147
  • References 147
  • 5 - An Overview of the Frump System 149
  • Acknowledgments 175
  • References 175
  • 6 - A Framework for Conceptual Analyzers 177
  • References 196
  • III - Conversation And Discourse 199
  • 7 - Conversation Failure 203
  • References 220
  • 8 - Towards an Understanding Of Coherence in Discourse 223
  • Acknowledgments 242
  • References 242
  • 9 - Beyond Question Answering 245
  • Acknowledgments 271
  • References 271
  • 10 - Adversary Arguments and The Logic of Personal Attacks 275
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 294
  • IV - Knowledge Representation 295
  • 11 - Inference and Learning In Computer Model of The Development of Language Comprehension in a Young Child 299
  • Acknowledgments 325
  • References 325
  • 12 - Inferring Building Blocks For Knowledge Representation 327
  • Acknowledgments 343
  • References 343
  • 13 - Points: A Theory of the Structure Of Stories in Memory 345
  • References 373
  • 14 - Plot Units: a Narrative Summarization Strategy 375
  • Acknowledgments 411
  • References 411
  • V - Theoretical Issues 413
  • 15 - Metaphor: an Inescapable Phenomenon In Natural-Language Comprehension 415
  • Acknowledgments 432
  • References 433
  • 16 - Context Recognition In Language Cornprehension 435
  • Acknowledgments 453
  • References 453
  • 17 - Reminding and Memory Organization: an Introduction To Mops 455
  • Acknowledgments 493
  • References 493
  • 18 - Some Thoughts on Procedural Semantics 495
  • Acknowledgments 515
  • Notes on Contributors 517
  • Subject Index 523
  • Index 529
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