Strategies for Natural Language Processing

By Wendy G. Lehnert; Martin H. Ringle | Go to book overview

retrieval always falls upon a single phrase. In some cases (such as the baseball example), when given a few possible frames, we can use other phrases (or by default, other words) to finish the disambiguation. What we cannot do is to paste a large number of small clues, each with hundreds or thousands of associations, into a finished whole. This, of course, is exactly what our opening example, the verbose version of George's cherry tree, required.

As we saw in the previous section, however, the model has problems, particularly those surrounding the "baseball" example. These problems are not minor ones, and must not be minimized. Nevertheless, the model arises in a natural way from completely independent consideration. To me, at least, this gives it considerable appeal.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research under contract N00014-79-C-0592.


REFERENCES

Bobrow Daniel G., and Winograd Terry "an Overview of KRL, A Knowledge Representation Language", Cognitive Science 1(1) pp. 3-46 ( 1977).

Charniak Eugene "Toward a Model of Children's Story Understanding", TR-266 M.I.T. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory ( 1972).

Charniak Eugene "On the Use of Framed Knowledge in Language Comprehension", Artificial Intelligence, 11 pp. 225-265 ( 1978). (a)

Charniak Eugene "With Spoon in Hand This Must be the Eating Frame", pp. 187-193 in Theoretical Issues in Natural Language Processing 2, ( 1978). (b)

Charniak Eugene "A Common Representation for Problem Solving and Language Comprehension Information", Artificial Intelligence, (forthcoming).

Charniak Eugene, Riesbeck Christopher K., and McDermott Drew V. Artificial Intelligence Programming, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey ( 1980).

Charniak Eugene, and Wilks Yorick Computational Semantics: An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language Comprehension, North-Holland Press, Amsterdam, Holland ( 1976).

Collins Allan, Brown John S., and Larkin Kathy M. "Inference in Text Understanding", in Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension, ed. R. J. Spiro, B. C. Bruce, and W. F. Brewer, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J., 1980.

Cullingford Richard E. "Script Application: Computer Understanding of Newspaper Stories", Report 116 Yale Department of Computer Science ( 1978).

Fahlman Scott E. NETL: A system for Representing and Using Real-World Knowledge, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. ( 1979).

Lehnert Wendy "Accessing Knowledge Structures for NLP", Unpublished Manuscript ( 1978).

McDermott Drew V. "Very Large Planner-Type Data Bases", Memo 339, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( 1975).

Minsky Marvin "A Framework for Representing Knowledge", in The Psychology of Computer Vision, ed. P. H. Winston, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York ( 1975).

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Strategies for Natural Language Processing
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • Abstracts xvii
  • I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - The State of the Art In Natural-Language Understanding 3
  • Acknowledgments 30
  • References 30
  • II - Implementation Issues 33
  • 2 - Realistic Language Comprehension 37
  • References 53
  • 3 - Natural Communication Between Person and Computer 55
  • Acknowledgments 86
  • References 86
  • 4 - Parsing and Comprehending With Word Experts (a Theory And Its Realization) 89
  • Acknowledgments 147
  • References 147
  • 5 - An Overview of the Frump System 149
  • Acknowledgments 175
  • References 175
  • 6 - A Framework for Conceptual Analyzers 177
  • References 196
  • III - Conversation And Discourse 199
  • 7 - Conversation Failure 203
  • References 220
  • 8 - Towards an Understanding Of Coherence in Discourse 223
  • Acknowledgments 242
  • References 242
  • 9 - Beyond Question Answering 245
  • Acknowledgments 271
  • References 271
  • 10 - Adversary Arguments and The Logic of Personal Attacks 275
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 294
  • IV - Knowledge Representation 295
  • 11 - Inference and Learning In Computer Model of The Development of Language Comprehension in a Young Child 299
  • Acknowledgments 325
  • References 325
  • 12 - Inferring Building Blocks For Knowledge Representation 327
  • Acknowledgments 343
  • References 343
  • 13 - Points: A Theory of the Structure Of Stories in Memory 345
  • References 373
  • 14 - Plot Units: a Narrative Summarization Strategy 375
  • Acknowledgments 411
  • References 411
  • V - Theoretical Issues 413
  • 15 - Metaphor: an Inescapable Phenomenon In Natural-Language Comprehension 415
  • Acknowledgments 432
  • References 433
  • 16 - Context Recognition In Language Cornprehension 435
  • Acknowledgments 453
  • References 453
  • 17 - Reminding and Memory Organization: an Introduction To Mops 455
  • Acknowledgments 493
  • References 493
  • 18 - Some Thoughts on Procedural Semantics 495
  • Acknowledgments 515
  • Notes on Contributors 517
  • Subject Index 523
  • Index 529
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