PREFACE

This volume on Hungary, as part of a series of volumes on the East- Central European countries sponsored by the Mid-European Studies Center, has necessarily been influenced by the general organization and scope of this series. Originally designed to have parallel chapters to those of other volumes, circumstances and general editorial policy caused some alterations in the plan. There were also certain limitations as to length. Some topics on which chapters appear in other volumes have here been reduced to sections in related chapters. Accordingly, while some readers may not find all the information they desire on a particular subject, the volume should prove useful to many for it contains a wealth of material.

Special mention should be made of the work of Dr. Stephen Fischer- Galati, who was largely responsible for the preliminary planning of the volume and the selection of authors. Dr. Robert F. Byrnes, former Director of the Mid-European Studies Center, not only supervised the whole series, but gave generously of his knowledge and skill in the preparation of this volume. More than any one individual, Dr. Fred S. Pisky of the Mid-European Studies Center deserves appreciation and gratitude for his over-all efforts in making the publication of this volume on Hungary possible. Appreciation is also due those authors who, for various reasons, must remain anonymous, and to Peter Julian, the pseudonym of a distinguished Hungarian novelist whose family still lives in Hungary.

The project also benefited from the help of several other scholars who have read chapters in their special fields. Outside of his own chapter, which is only meant to provide a brief historical setting for the volume, the editor's contribution has been largely limited to suggestions and routine editorial tasks.

After the volume was in galleys, the Hungarian revolution erupted. The escapees brought a flow of invaluable Hungarian data to the West, and the Kadar regime released much new statistical information. It was thought best to add a short factual chapter on this, one of the most heroic episodes in Hungarian history, rather than have the individual authors rewrite their chapters.

ERNST C. HELMREICH

-ix-

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Hungary
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • East-Central Europe under the Communists ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Foreword v
  • Preface ix
  • Contents x
  • Maps xii
  • Note xiii
  • I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - Hungary in History 2
  • 2 - Hungary in International Affairs since 1945 17
  • II - Geography and Demography 33
  • 3 - The Land 34
  • 4 - The People 45
  • III - The Government 73
  • 5 - The Constitutional System and Government 74
  • 6 - The Party and Political Organizations 104
  • 7 - State Security 132
  • 8 - Propaganda and Information Media 151
  • IV - Literature and Education 167
  • 9 - Literature and the Arts 168
  • 10 - Education 190
  • V - The Economy 213
  • 11 - National Income and Its Distribution 214
  • 12 - Agriculture 229
  • 13 - Labor 259
  • 14 - Mining 284
  • 15 - Industry 291
  • 16 - Transportation and Communications 316
  • 17 - Public Health and Social Security 334
  • VI - The Hungarian Revolution 351
  • The Hungarian Revolution 352
  • Appendix 391
  • Bibliography 423
  • Index 451
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