Narrative Knowing and the Human Sciences

By Donald E. Polkinghorne | Go to book overview
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Chapter I: Introduction
Peter Checkland, "Systems Thinking", Systems Practice ( New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1981), 74-82.
F. Jacob, The Logic of Living Systems ( London: Allen Lane, 1974).
For example, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, The Structure of Behavior, 1942, trans. Alden L. Fisher ( Boston: Beacon Press, 1963).
James Grier Miller, Living Systems ( New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978).
Jason Brown, Mind, Brain, and Consciousness: The Neuropsychology of Cognition ( New York: Academic Press, 1977), 10-24.
Stephan Strasser, Phenomenology of Feeling: An Essay of the Phenomena of the Heart, trans. Robert E. Wood ( Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1977), 149-177.
See Jerome A. Shaffer, Philosophy of Mind ( Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968) for a description of the debates about mind and matter in the history of philosophy. See Paul M. Churchman , Matter and Consciousness: A Contemporary Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind ( Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984) and Joseph Margolis, Philosophy of Psychology ( Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1984) for the contemporary discussion of the mind‐ body problem.
Much has been written in the philosophy of meaning without consensus being achieved. C. K. Ogden and J. A. Richards, The Meaning of Meaning, 1923 (reprint, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1952), distinguished sixteen different senses for "meaning." Justin Leiber , in the article "Meaning" in Rom Harre and Roger Lamb, The Encyclopedic Dictionary of Psychology ( Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1983), 374, writes, "Some have argued that meaning is not a unitary notion or perhaps not a distinguishable notion at all." I hold that the notion of meaning represents a common mental action, the drawing of connections between the contents of awareness. The paragraphs that follow provide a brief outline of the application of this general description to the meaning of language, symbols, and discourse.
This list is not meant to be an exhaustive description of the kinds of relationship noted by the activity of the realm of meaning. The notion that knowledge consists of two elements—an experiential element (a concrete set of sense data, perceptions, and feelings) and a structural or relational element—comes from Kant and is often reiterated in cognitive science. Kant's categories of judgment or kinds of relationship followed those described in Aristotle's logic. Kant also held that his concepts of relationship were a priori. I am not


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