Mechanisms of Immigration Control: A Comparative Analysis of European Regulation Policies

By Grete Brochmann; Tomas Hammar | Go to book overview

3
Ideas, Institutions, and Civil Society:
On the Limits of Immigration
James F. Hollifield

Introduction: Immigration and the Republican Tradition

Unlike other European states, France has a long history of immigration, dating back at least to the middle of the nineteenth century when industrialization began in earnest. Yet France was not the only European state compelled to import labour to feed the fires of industrialization. What distinguishes France from many other European states is the early willingness to accept foreigners as settlers, immigrants, and even as citizens. The acceptance of foreigners as potential citizens is part and parcel of what can be called a republican tradition, which stems from the French Revolution at the end of the eighteenth century. Republicanism is strongly egalitarian, anti-clerical (laïque) and opposed to monarchy. It stresses popular sovereignty, citizenship, and the rights of man. It can be nationalist and imperialist, while at the same time stressing universal political values, such as equal protection of all individuals before the law. Republicanism, as an ideology and a form of government, was bitterly contested in France throughout the nineteenth century and into the twentieth century (Hoffmann, 1963).

Even though France has a long tradition of immigration and was the first European state to grant citizenship to Jews, at the time of the Revolution, it was not until the culmination of the Dreyfus affair early in the twentieth century, under the Third Republic, that the main tenets of republicanism – laïcité or separation of church and state, equal protection of all before the law, a universalist conception of human rights, and popular sovereignty – were finally accepted by a majority of the French people. It was also during this period around the turn of the century that the French state began to lay the legal foundations for citizenship and naturalization,

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Mechanisms of Immigration Control: A Comparative Analysis of European Regulation Policies
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgements vii
  • Notes on Contributors ix
  • 1 - The Mechanisms of Control 1
  • References *
  • 2 - Germany's Immigration Policies and Politics 29
  • References *
  • 3 - Ideas, Institutions, and Civil Society: on the Limits of Immigration 59
  • References *
  • 4 - Immigration Control without Integration Policy: an Austrian Dilemma 97
  • References *
  • 5 - Migration Control and Minority Policy: the Case of the Netherlands 135
  • References *
  • 6 - Closing the Doors to the Swedish Welfare State 169
  • References *
  • 7 - Redrawing Lines of Control: the Norwegian Welfare State Dilemma 203
  • References *
  • 8 - Planning in the Dark: the Evolution of Italian Immigration Control 233
  • References 258
  • 9 - The Emergence of Migration Control Politics in Hungary 261
  • References *
  • 10 - Controlling Immigration in Europe 297
  • References *
  • Index 335
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