Jacques Rupnik, “Central or Mitteleuropa?” Daedalus 119/1 (Winter 1990), 253.
Historical data quoted by Andras Inotai, “Past, Present, and Future of Federalism in
Central and Eastern Europe,” New Europe Law Review 1/2 (Spring 1993), 516.
Timothy Garton Ash, “Reform or Revolution?” in Timothy Garton Ash, ed., The Uses
of Adversity: Essays on the Fate of Central Europe (New York: Random House, 1989),
Wojtek Lamentowicz, “Russia and East-Central Europe: Strategic Options,” in Vladimir Baranovsky, ed., Russia and Europe: The Emerging Security Agenda (Oxford:
SIPRI, Oxford University Press, 1997), 356.
Kalman Kulcsar, “Constitutionalism and Human Rights in the Transformation of the
Hungarian Political System,” in Marta Katona Soltesz, ed., Human Rights in Today's
Hungary (Budapest: Mezon, 1990), 15.
Istvan Pogany, “A New Constitutional Disorder for Eastern Europe?” in Pogany, ed., Human Rights in Eastern Europe (Aldershot: Edward Elgar, 1995), 225–226.
Zdenka Polivkova, “Human Rights in Post-Totalitarian Czechoslovakia,” All-European
Human Rights Yearbook, vol. 1 (1991), 231.
Jacek Kurczewski, “The Politics of Human Rights in Post-Communist Poland,” in
Pogany, Human Rights, op. cit., 112.
Elemer Kankiss, Kelet-Europai Alternativak [East European Alternatives] (Budapest:
KJK, 1989), 82.
Roman Wieruszewski, “National Implementation of Human Rights,” in Allan Rosas
and Jan Helgesen, eds., Human Rights in a Changing East–West Perspective (London:
Pinter, 1990), 286–287.
Geza Herczegh, the Hungarian judge of the International Court of Justice, wrote in
1993: “Some days ago, I was asked about the reasons or the secrets of peaceful transition from a dictorial regime to a pluralistic society. My answer was that we Hungarians
are a nation of lawyers. Jurists have always played a great role in the Hungarian society.
We are proud that our King Andrew II issued the so-called Golden Bill in 1222, seven
years after the English Magna Carta limited royal power and recognized some fundamental rights and privileges for the nobility. But those remote historical events are not
the most important; far more important is the fact that during the period of communist
dictatorship we could preserve, at least partially, our legal traditions and culture, and
some of our institutions.” Geza Herczegh, “The Evolution of Human Rights Law in
Central and Eastern Europe: One Jurist's Response to the Distinguished Panellists,” Connecticut Journal of International Law 8/2 (Spring 1993), 325.
Kulcsar, “Constitutionalism and Human Rights,” op. cit.
Eötvös never regarded himself as a federalist, as the idea of the federalization of Hungary was favoured by Hungarian political thinkers only at the end of the First World
József Eötvös, “XIX. szazad uralkodo eszmeinek befolyasa az alladalomra [The Influence on the State of the Prevailing Ideas of the 19th Century] (Budapest, 1851), as
quoted by Kulcsar, op. cit., 22.
According to some views, these experiences of individual economic freedoms without
having true political rights somehow deformed the idea of citizenship in the eyes of the
Hungarians and led to a kind of “leave me alone” or “everybody deals with their own
business” mentality, which is frequently but not necessarily intertwined with political