Human Resource Management in Developing Countries

By Pawan S. Budhwar; Yaw A. Debrah | Go to book overview

12

Human resource management in Ghana

Yaw A. Debrah

Introduction

This chapter begins with some basic statistics 1 about Ghana, a West African country with a population of 18.5 million (annual growth rate, 3.1 per cent; average life expectancy, 59 years; national literacy level, 75 per cent). It occupies a total area of 238,537 sq. km and is well endowed with natural resources such as gold, diamonds, bauxite, manganese, iron ore, clay and salt deposits. It is also blessed with a good supply of arable land, suitable for both crop and livestock production, and forestry.

Agriculture is the main economic activity in Ghana, with cocoa the leading export crop. Cocoa is grown in six of the country’s ten regions and as an economic activity it occupies 8 million people or close to half the population, mainly as small-scale farmers. Cocoa is the country’s second biggest export earner after gold and contributes 13-14 per cent of GDP, 11 per cent of tax and 30-35 per cent of foreign exchange earnings (Wallis, 1999).

In 1999, Ghana had a total labour force of 3.7 million. This is a considerable decline from the 4.2 million in 1982 and slightly higher than the 1970 figure of 3.3 million (Huq, 1989). There is growing concern about unemployment because of the ongoing retrenchment of workers, economic structural changes, and, in particular, the decline in the manufacturing sector. In the late 1970s, manufacturing accounted for about 14 per cent of GDP, in 1999 it was less than 10 per cent. Wage employment exists in almost all industries but, in recent years, the bulk has been in mining and construction. This is due to the former being able to attract foreign investment and the latter benefiting from overseas loans to rehabilitate the country’s infrastructure. Ghana is a multi-ethnic country with about six main local languages. English, however, is the official language.

In the economic realm, Ghana has embarked on an ambitious economic and social programme designed to qualify it as a middle income country by 2020. According to the government’s development blueprint, known as Vision 2020, it is expected that an annual growth rate of 12 per cent can be achieved by the end of the plan period. But, as Holman (1999a:3) comments:

After 13 years of rumbling down the runway of World Bank and IMF aid-backed reforms, Ghana’s economy has yet to reach take off. Not only is

-190-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Human Resource Management in Developing Countries
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 264

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.