7th century AD: The Arabs conquered and brought Islam to the ancient provinces of Sogdiana and Bactria, notably the ‘Silk Road’ trading cities of Samarkand (Marakanda) and Bukhara (Bactra or Bacharia, previously the Kushan capital).
13th century: Nomadic Mongols settled among the predominantly Turkic population of Central Asia.
1313-1341: Reign of Uzbeg, a khan of the Golden Horde, after whom the Uzbeks were named.
1370-1405: Reign of Timur ‘the Lame’ (Tamerlane), originally from Transoxania (in modern Uzbekistan), who established a second Mongol Empire, which disintegrated rapidly after his death.
16th century: Competing Uzbek khanates had established their dominance in the territory of modern Uzbekistan, especially Bukhara, Khiva, Kokand and Samarkand.
1866: The Khanate of Kokand was conquered by Russia, which was expanding southwards. In the following year much of the area which is now Karakalpakstan was annexed by Russia from the Khanate of Khiva.
1868: With the fall of Samarkand to the Russians, the Emirate of Bukhara surrendered and became a protectorate of the Russian Empire, following over a century of struggle by the Uzbek khanates with Persia; Samarkand and Tashkent were ceded to Russia.
1873: The Khanate of Khiva, which controlled much of what is western Uzbekistan, became a protectorate of the Russian Empire.
1876: The Khanate of Kokand was abolished and its territory absorbed into the Russian Empire.
November 1917: The Bolsheviks gained control of areas of Uzbekistan.
30 April 1918: The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) was formed, covering an area that included Uzbekistan; Soviet forces withdrew temporarily when confronted by the nationalist basmachi movement, supported by British and ‘White’ (anti-Bolshevik) forces.
September 1919: Soviet forces re-established control of much of Uzbek territory.
February 1920: Khiva fell to the Red Army and the Khorezm People’s Socialist Republic was proclaimed.