An Environmental History of the World: Humankind's Changing Role in the Community of Life

By J. Donald Hughes | Go to book overview

Notes
1
Fairfield Osborn, The Limits of the Earth, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1953.
2
Again, one metric ton equals 1.1 English/US tons. Since the two units are relatively close in scale, only the weights in metric tons will be given.
3
Environmental History 3, 2, April 1998, is a special issue containing several articles (by Paul Sabin, Myrna Santiago, Nancy Quam—Wickham, and Brian Black) on the environmental effects of the oil industry in the twentieth century.
4
Michael Chisholm, “The Increasing Separation of Production and Consumption,” in B.L. Turner II, William C. Clark, Robert W. Kates, John F. Richards, Jessica T. Mathews and William B. Meyer, eds, The Earth As Transformed by Human Action, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990, 87-101.
5
E.g. H.G. Wells, The Time Machine, New York, Random House, 1931; Aldous Huxley, Brave New World, Lodon, Chatto and Windus, 1932.
6
Carl O. Sauer, “The Agency of Man on the Earth,” in William L. Thomas, Jr., ed., Mans Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1956, 49-69, 66.
7
S.R. Eyre, The Real Wealth of Nations, New York, St Martin’s Press, 1978.
8
Stewart L. Udall, The Quiet Crisis and the Next Generation, Salt Lake City, Peregrine Smith Books, 1988, 137-8.
9
A.G. Kenwood and A.L. Lougheed, The Growth of the International Economy, 1820-1960, London, George Allen and Unwin, 1971, 239, 273.
10
Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844, Moscow, Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1961, 74-6; quoted in Charles A. Ziegler, Environmental Policy in the USSR, Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press, 1987, 12.
11
Douglas R. Weiner, A Little Corner of Freedom: Russian Nature Protection from Stalin to Gorbachev, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1999, 400.
12
Friedrich Engels, Dialectics of Nature, New York, International Publishers, 1940, 292.
13
Madhav Gadgil and Ramachandra Guha, This Fissured Land, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1992, 12.
14
Raymond Dominick, “Capitalism, Communism, and Environmental Protection: Lessons from the German Experience,” Environmental History 3, 3, July 1998, 311-32.
15
Michael Williams, “Forests,” in B.L. Turner II, William C. Clark, Robert W. Kates, John F. Richards, Jessica T. Mathews and William B. Meyer, eds, The Earth As Transformed by Human Action, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990, 179-201, 185-7.
16
Warren Dean, With Broadax and Firebrand: The Destruction of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1995.
17
Williams, “Forests,” 132-5.
18
Michael Graham, “Harvests of the Seas,” in William L. Thomas, Jr., ed., Mans Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, 487-503, 493.
19
James O’Connor,, Three Ways to Think About the Ecological History of the Monterey Bay Region, Santa Cruz, CA, CNS, Center for Political Ecology, 1995.
20
Joel A. Tarr and Robert U. Ayres, “The Hudson-Raritan Basin,” in B.L. Turner II, William C. Clark, Robert W. Kates, John F. Richards, Jessica T. Mathews and William B. Meyer, The Earth As Transformed by Human Action, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990, 623-39, 638.
21
lan Douglas, “Sediment Transfer and Siltation,” in ibid. 215-34, 217-18.
22
Farieda Khan, “Soil Wars: The Role of the African Soil Conservation Association in South Africa, 1953-1959,” Environmental History 2, 4, October 1997, 439-59.
23
Paul Bigelow Sears, Deserts on the March, Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1935.
24
Gifford Pinchot, The Fight for Conservation, New York, Doubleday, 1910, 48-9.
25
Samuel P. Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 1890-1920, New York, Atheneum, 1980, 176-88; Paul Russell Cutright, Theodore Roosevelt: The Making of a Conservationist, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1985, 228-31.
26
Richard H. Grove, Ecology, Climate and Empire: Colonialism and Global Environmental History, 1400-1940, Cambridge, White Horse Press, 1997, 206-16.
27
Ibid. 222.
28
Donald Worster, Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West, New York, Pantheon Books, 1985, 132-42.

-169-

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An Environmental History of the World: Humankind's Changing Role in the Community of Life
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Figures ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Permissions xiii
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Primal Harmony 12
  • 3 - The Great Divorce of Culture and Nature 30
  • 4 - Ideas and Impacts 52
  • 5 - The Middle Ages 83
  • 6 - The Transformation of the Biosphere 109
  • 7 - Exploitation and Conservation 141
  • Notes 169
  • 8 - Modern Environmental Problems 174
  • 9 - Present and Future 206
  • 10 - A General Conclusion 238
  • Notes 241
  • Bibliographical Essay 242
  • Index 249
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