No Place for Amateurs: How Political Consultants Are Reshaping American Democracy

By Dennis W. Johnson | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction
1.
Seymour Martin Lipset, American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword (New York: W. W. Norton, 1996), 43.
2.
U.S. Bureau of the Census figures cited in “Over Half Million Elected Officials in U.S.,” Campaigns and Elections, May 1996, 54. This figure includes primaries and runoff elections; many of the elected contests are for one- or two-year terms. Not included in these figures are the many initiatives and referenda, bond issues, constitutional amendments, and other ballot issues found at the state and local level.
3.
Ron Faucheux, “Consultants on Trial,” Campaigns and Elections, October/November 1996, 5. Walter DeVries estimated that twelve thousand individuals made all or most of their incomes as professional consultants. “American Campaign Consulting: Trends and Concerns,” PS: Political Science and Politics, March 1989, 21.
4.
See James Q. Wilson, The Amateur Democrat: Club Politics in Three Cities (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962). Wilson’s focus was on the amateur office-seeker, but has relevance here for looking at those who assist candidates running for office. The typology of professionals and amateurs is explored in Frank J. Sorauf and Paul Allen Beck, Party Politics in America, 6th ed. (Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman and Company), 120.

Chapter 1:

Celebrity Consultants and Professionally Driven Campaigns

Epigraph from Richard Stengel and Eric Pooley, “Masters of the Message,” Time, November 18, 1996, 18.

1.
Time, September 2, 1996.
2.
George Stephanopoulos, All Too Human: A Political Education (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1999), 338.
3.
Morris’s version of the Clinton reelection drive is found in Dick Morris, Behind the Oval Office: Winning the Presidency in the Nineties (New York: Random House, 1997).
4.
Hollywood has long had an interest in politics and campaigns. In Frank Capra’s Meet John Doe (1941), vagrant Gary Cooper played the American everyman in the tale of a crooked politician’s presidential bid. In another Capra film, State of the Union (1948), Spencer Tracy portrayed a well-meaning businessman who wanted to run for the presidency. Paul Newman was a young lawyer running for office faced with a blackmail scandal in The Young Philadelphians (1959). Henry Fonda and Cliff Robertson were

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