Housing and Finance in Developing Countries

By Kavita Datta; Gareth A. Jones | Go to book overview

12

INFORMAL FINANCE AND WOMEN’S SURVIVAL STRATEGIES

Case studies from Cameroon and Zambia

Ann Gordon

Natural Resources Institute, UK


INTRODUCTION

Throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa there is no indication of decline in the rate of urban growth and it is estimated that cities will grow, in the current decade, by 10.5 million people or 5.3 per cent per annum (UNDP 1992). In recent decades, this urban growth has consistently surpassed economic performance. Moreover, economic reforms have resulted in a significant reduction in formal sector employment and real wages, while cuts in public expenditure on education, health services and food subsidies have intensified the poverty and vulnerability of urban low-income households. In an attempt to maintain incomes, households have engaged in a variety of survival strategies including switching from wage to non-wage employment in the informal sector and the increased participation of women in the labour force (World Bank 1995). Household composition has also undergone change as extended households have become more common allowing members to pool income and resources in an attempt to minimize risks. The incidence of both de facto and de jure female-headed households has also increased.

These strategies have had a particular impact on gender roles and gender relations within households and in wider society. Women’s increased participation in the workforce, and particularly in the informal sector, has been caused by declines in both the formal sector and their traditional marginalization by this sector. The latter is partly attributable to the fact that women generally have fewer skills and lower levels of education than their male counterparts. As a result of this discrimination in the formal sector, women may be obliged to move more rapidly into the informal sector for which surveys typically show higher rates of women’s participation (Mills and Sahn 1996). The 1987 census in Cameroon, for example, reveals that 57 per cent of urban

-181-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Housing and Finance in Developing Countries
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 270

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.