Health and Social Change in Russia and Eastern Europe

By William C. Cockerham | Go to book overview
Save to active project

Chapter 10


From the mid-1960s to the late 1990s, male life expectancy in Bulgaria has been slowly but continuously turning downward in a yet unbroken decline. Longevity for women, in contrast, has steadily increased during the same period. What is it about the health situation of Bulgarian males that has been cutting off their life expectancy for approximately 30 years? This chapter examines this question in a search for the answer.


Bulgaria, with a 1994 population of 8.4 million people, is the southern-most Eastern European country and shares borders with Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Greece, and Turkey. The original Bulgarian state was founded in 681 and was among the most powerful and advanced kingdoms of Europe in the early Middle Ages (Kaplan 1993). A predominantly Slavic nation, Bulgaria experienced cycles of regional power and decline before having its independence extinguished by the Turks in a series of battles fought between 1366 and 1396. The country was ruled by various Turkish overlords for nearly 500 years and cut off from the rest of Europe. Its population was generally relegated to the role of peasant farmers, and the arable land devoted to agriculture. As Robert Kaplan (1993:205) explains:

This chapter was written with the assistance of Nevyana Feschieva, M.D., Ph.D., Head, Department of Social Medicine and Biostatistics, Medical University, Varna, Bulgaria.


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Health and Social Change in Russia and Eastern Europe


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 284

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?