Communist Power in Europe, 1944-1949

By Martin McCauley | Go to book overview

6 Hungary

GEORGE SCHÖPFLIN

In 1944, the two foreign occupations of the country destroyed the political system and the political class that had presided over the rise of modern Hungary. In March, Nazi Germany carried out a swift military occupation and after Admiral Horthy's botched attempt at surrender in October, the Arrow Cross (Hungarian Nazis) took over. This coincided with the offensive of the Red Army, but it was not until 4 April 1945 that the whole of Hungary's territory was liberated. Damage, particularly in the capital, was extensive, but the collapse of the administration and the anti-Semitic pogroms had also left a lasting impression on morale. This was intensified by the fact that, by 1944, few people in Hungary felt that they had much stake in continued belligerency and regarded the fighting almost as the activity of two alien armies which did not concern Hungary.

But parallel with this disenchantment, there was a widespread desire for change. The interwar period had already seen an upsurge of political pressure for reform -- in this instance it expressed itself in a right-wing ideology -- and the collapse was seen as an opportunity for a thorough reconstruction of the social and political order. The desire for change affected every social class and it was accepted as inevitable by the now discredited former ruling class, at least in the immediate aftermath of the collapse.

The political forces which emerged in the wake of the liberation were all committed to change, although the question of how far the country was to be transformed and by what means quickly polarised the political scene. A temporary four-party coalition government was established at Debrecen as the Red Army pressed westwards. It consisted of the Communists ( M.K.P.) the Smallholders ( K.G.P.), the Social Democrats ( S.D.P.) and National Peasant Party (N.P.P.), as well as a number of non-party figures from the old regime.

The M.K.P. (Magyar Kommunista Párt) had been illegal since 1919, had a minuscule membership consisting mostly of home Communists and a number of Muscovites, and it carried the burden of the failed revolution of 1919.1 Its membership at the end of 1944 may have been minuscule, but it

-95-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Communist Power in Europe, 1944-1949
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Notes on Contributors xix
  • List of Abbreviations xxi
  • Part One 1
  • 1- Economic Developments in Eastern Europe under German Hegemony 3
  • 2- The Baltic States 1940-50 22
  • Part Two 37
  • 3- Poland 39
  • 4- East Germany 58
  • 5- Czechoslovakia 73
  • 6- Hungary 95
  • 7- Romania 111
  • Part Three 131
  • 8- Finland 133
  • 9- France 151
  • 10- Italy 168
  • II- Greece 184
  • Part Four 199
  • 12- British Policy towards Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary 1944-1946 201
  • 13- Thirty Years after 220
  • Index 231
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 244

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.