Notes

Introduction
1
For example, Weitz (1956:439) suggests that innovation in the arts depends upon invalidating ‘closed’ systems. It results from ‘a decision on someone’s part to extend or to close the old or invent a new concept. (For example, ‘It’s not a sculpture, it’s a mobile.’)’.
2
These range from: Langford (1978) Basic Photography, 4th edn, Adams (1981) The Negative: The New Ansel Adams Photography Series, to Vestal (1984) The Art of Black and White Enlarging, and Miller (1981) Building a Home Darkroom.

Chapter 1Historical outline of photographic representation
1
Ross (1927) The Works of Aristotle Translated into English, Volume VII—Problemata. Also Eder (1945:36).
2
Another example is stereo-photography.
3
Although, according to Minnaert (1993:1-4) Light and Colour in the Outdoors, during an eclipse images of the sun can be cast onto the ground through the foliage of trees.
4
Expressing the alternative point of view, Kenneth Clark (1949:29) describes mediaeval art as ‘not a childish or irrational way of recording visual experience, for our eye does not dwell on a single point, but moves, and we move and a procession of objects passes before it.’
5
See Tylor (1873) Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art and Custom, 2 vols.
6
This conforms to Berkeley’s (1709) theory of vision.
7
trompe l’oeil. Fr. literally ‘deception of the eye’.
8
According to Government census returns.
9
This was the view of perception held by the ancient Greeks. See Lindberg (1976:2-3).
10
Later artists, such as Andy Goldsworthy, have produced ice sculptures sited in the frozen landscape—which has made the ‘normal’ viewing of such artworks impossible.
11
Even in the case of the Xerox machine, artist Ian Burn showed that this device has its own peculiar set of properties. See his Xerox Book, in Walker (1975), Art Since Pop.
12
The term was first employed by French writers in the nineteenth century.
13
See Baudelaire’s introduction to his translation Nouvelles histoires extraordinaires, Oeuvres completes, VII (1933:xiv) of Edgar Allan Poe.

-176-

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The Photography Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Acknowledgements ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Historical Outline of Photographic Representation 12
  • 2 - Pre-Production 36
  • 3 - The Photographic Image 68
  • 4 - Post-Production 89
  • 5 - The Documentary Photograph 118
  • 6 - Photography as a Cultural Critique 135
  • 7 - Characteristics of Digital Photography 151
  • 8 - Conclusion 173
  • Notes 176
  • Glossary 179
  • Bibliography 183
  • Index 191
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