a developmental course which parallels that of normal fears, with separation anxiety and simple phobias appearing in early childhood, while social anxiety, panic disorder, and agoraphobia—which often occurs secondary to panic disorder—have their onset in adolescence, along with generalized anxiety. Biological theories of anxiety implicate dysregulations of a number of systems—notably the GABA system, the adrenergic-noradrenergic system and the serotonergic system—in the etiology of anxiety. Benzodiazepines and serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to partially rectify these difficulties and lead to symptomatic relief. Psychoanalytic theories implicate the defence mechanism of displacement in some anxiety disorders and undoing in OCD. Cognitive-behavioural theories of anxiety point to the role of conditioning and socialization processes in the development of anxiety disorders. Family systems theories highlight the roles of family belief systems and interaction patterns in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorder and the significance of family lifecycle transitions in precipitating the onset of these conditions. In clinical practice many clinicians take an integrative approach to assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders.


Further reading
Carr, A. (1999). Handbook of Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychology. London: Routledge (Chapters 12-13). These chapters outline a clinical approach to the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.
Carr, A. (2000). What Works with Children and Adolescents? A Critical Review of Research on Psychological Interventions with Children, Adolescents and their Families. London: Routledge (Chapter 8). This chapter summarizes evidence for the effectiveness of psychological treatments of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.
Hawton, K., Salkovskis, P., Kirk, J. and Clark, D. (1989). Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric Problems: A Practical Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press (Chapters 3-5). These chapters outline a CBT approach to treating adults with anxiety disorders.

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Abnormal Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Series Preface ix
  • Preface xi
  • Chapter 1 - Childhood Behaviour Disorders 1
  • Further Reading 35
  • Chapter 2 - Anxiety Disorders 37
  • Further Reading 75
  • Chapter 3 - Depression 77
  • Further Reading 105
  • Chapter 4 - Schizophrenia 107
  • Further Reading 133
  • Chapter 5 - Personality Disorders 135
  • Further Reading 175
  • Chapter 6 - Models of Abnormal Behaviour 177
  • Glossary 199
  • References 205
  • Index 225
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