Coerced and Free Migration: Global Perspectives

By David Eltis | Go to book overview

9
Convicts: Unwilling Migrants
from Britain and France
COLIN FORSTER

BRITAIN AND then France, systematically and on a large scale, scattered their convicts to their colonies around the world for over two hundred years. The number of convicts so dispatched totaled some 340,000. In broad outline, there were three principal episodes: Britain sent about 50,000 convicts to its American mainland colonies chiefly between 1718 and 1775, and 160,000 to its Australian colonies between 1787 and 1868; France sent 103,000 to French Guiana and New Caledonia between 1852 and 1938. 1 Some other Western countries transported their convicts to their colonies, but none approached anything like this scale. What stands out is the long period and sequential nature of the three ventures. That it was sequential indicates the relationship among the three. Britain began transporting convicts to Australia only when access to America was closed, and France began transportation only after a long and careful study of the results obtained from sending convicts to Australia.

The long time span meant that the transporting authorities could learn from previous practice and adjust the conditions under which transportation took place. However, it also meant that the historical circumstances under which transportation took place changed markedly and both permitted and required significant changes in the convict regimes. Perhaps the most significant aspect of transportation to affect the role of the convicts in their place of exile was the extent to which they were placed in a settled society or were used as a pioneering labor force to open up the colonies for European settlement. And although there were numerous and changing motives behind this convict migration, one remained constant and important—the desire of the mother country to rid itself of criminals. This is the main feature that distinguishes transportation from other

-259-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Coerced and Free Migration: Global Perspectives
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 447

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.