Coerced and Free Migration: Global Perspectives

By David Eltis | Go to book overview

Notes

INTRODUCTION

I thank William H. McNeill, Philip Morgan, Richard Davis, and all the contributors to this volume for comments on earlier versions of this introduction.

1
Heather Pringle, “Hints of Frequent Pre-Columbian Contacts,” Science 288 (2000): 783–84. The earliest sea-borne contacts with China appear to have been by Arab, Persian, and Indian navigators and did not result in settlement. The first overseas Chinese settlements involving ocean voyages—in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra—date from the early fourteenth century, though intermittent trading contacts go back to BCE. See Victor Purcell, The Chinese in Southeast Asia (London, 1965), 11–16; Wang Gungwu, “Merchants Without Empire: the Hokkinen Sojourning Communities,” in James D. Tracy, ed., The Rise of Merchant Empires: Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World, 1350–1750 (Cambridge, 1990), 400–421.
2
Cherchen man provides evidence of exchange between China and western Europe BCE (see Elizabeth Wayland Barber, The Mummies of Urumchi [London, 1999]). The plaid textiles on the mummies, interred in north-western China about 1000 BC, could only have been woven on European-style looms; the mummies themselves have large noses, fair hair, and round eyes, and some are six feet tall. These findings suggest that Chinese and European civilizations did not develop in isolation from each other. Yet it is a large jump to the argument that cultural contact and integration of the type made possible by ocean-borne trade existed in these early days.
3
Robin Law, “Ethnicity and the Slave Trade: ‘Lucumi’ and ‘Nago’ as ethonyms in West Africa,” History in Africa 23 (1997): 1–16.
4
See chap. 5 below.
6
Peter Linebaugh and Marcus Rediker argue that a “multiethnic class was essential to the rise of capitalism and the modern global economy” (The Many-Headed Hydra: The Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic [London, 2000], 6–7).
7
Space constraints mean that Eastern Europe here is taken as Russia,

-363-

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