Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century and After

By R. J. Crampton | Go to book overview

NOTES

PREFACE
1
Winston S. Churchill, The World Crisis 1911-1918, London, Four Square Books, 1960, p. 114.
2
Various authors, ‘A Survey of Opinion on the East European Revolution’, East European Politics and Societies, vol. 4, no. 2 (Spring 1990), pp. 153-207, see p. 156.
3
F.R. Bridge, From Sadowa to Sarajevo: The Foreign Policy of Austria-Hungary, 1866-1914, London and Boston, Mass., Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972.
4
W.M. Fullerton, Problems of Power: a Study of International Politics from Sadowa to Kirk Kilisse, London, Constable, 1913.
5
The wording was chosen by Alan Palmer for an excellent introductory history of the area, The Lands Between: A History of East-Central Europe since the Congress of Vienna, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1970.
6
C.A. Macartney and A.W. Palmer, Independent Eastern Europe, London, Macmillan, 1966, is excellent for inter-state relations between the wars. There is also a wealth of scholarship on diplomatic history between 1938 and 1941. Of especial value on the late 1930s is Donald Cameron Watt, How War Came; The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938-1939, London, Heinemann, 1989. During the war an independent foreign policy was difficult and it was scarcely much easier after 1945. Yugoslavia was forced into a separate stance but it was to be almost a generation before Albania and Romania went their own ways; Bulgaria and the northern tier states of the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary never did so. The economic history of eastern Europe is splendidly catered for in M.C. Kaser (ed.) The Economic History of Eastern Europe: 1919-1975, 5 vols (three published to date), Oxford, the Clarendon Press, 1985-6. We still await a comprehensive study of culture in eastern Europe in the twentieth century.

1 BEFORE THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
1
Anne Applebaum, ‘Simulated Birth of a Nation’, Spectator, 29 February 1992.
2
Wiktor Sukiennicki, East Central Europe during World War I: From Foreign Domination to National Independence, edited by Maciej Sierkierski, preface by Czesław Miłosz, 2 vols, East European Monograph 99, New York and Boulder, Colo., Columbia University Press and East European Monographs, 1984, p. 108.
3
Piotr S. Wandycz, ‘Poland’s Place in Europe in the Concepts of Piłsudski and Dmowski’, East European Politics and Societies, vol. 4, no. 3 (Fall 1990), pp. 451-68, see pp. 454-5.
4
C.J.C. Street, Hungary and Democracy, London, Unwin, 1923, pp. 59-62.

-459-

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Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century and After
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Maps and Tables vii
  • Preface to the First Edition ix
  • Preface to the Second Edition xiii
  • Acknowledgements xiv
  • 1 - Before the Twentieth Century 1
  • Part I - The Inter-War Period 29
  • 2 - The Inter-War Years 31
  • 3 - Poland, 1918-39 39
  • 4 - Czechoslovakia, 1918-38 57
  • 5 - Hungary, 1918-41 78
  • 6 - The Baltic States, 1918-40 95
  • 7 - Romania, 1918-41 107
  • 8 - Bulgaria, 1918-41 119
  • 9 - Yugoslavia, 1918-41 130
  • 10 - Albania, 1918-39 144
  • 11 - Ideological Currents in the Inter-War Period 152
  • Part II - Totalitarianism 177
  • 12 - The Second World War in Eastern Europe 179
  • 13 - The Communist Takeovers 211
  • 14 - The Communist System 240
  • 15 - East European Stalinism, 1948-53 255
  • 16 - The Retreat from Stalinism, 1953-6 275
  • Part III - Revisionism 305
  • 17 - Eastern Europe, 1956-68 307
  • 18 - Czechoslovakia, 1968-9 326
  • Part IV - The Decline of Socialism 343
  • 19 - Eastern Europe, 1969-80 345
  • 20 - The Solidarity Crisis, Poland 1980-1 367
  • Part V - The Death of Socialism 377
  • 21 - Eastern Europe, 1980-9 379
  • 22 - The Revolutions of 1989-91 391
  • Part VI - After the Twentieth Century—and after Eastern Europe? 417
  • 23 - Separate Roads to Democracy—and Elsewhere 419
  • Notes 459
  • Bibliography 469
  • Index 499
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