United Nations-Sponsored World Conferences: Focus on Impact and Follow-Up

By Michael G. Schechter | Go to book overview

Notes
1
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 9 May 1992, 31 International Legal Materials (1992), p. 848.
2
This chapter does not review the negotiating history of the UNFCCC. A useful such discussion, although not of subsequent decisions of the subsidiary bodies and the COP, nor of the Kyoto Protocol, may be found in Daniel Bodansky, “The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: A Commentary,” 18 The Yale Journal of International Law (No. 2, Summer 1993).
3
The decision to convene UNCED and launch the related negotiating process was taken by the UNGA by its resolution 44/228.
4
See UNGA resolutions 43/53, 44/206, 44/207, and 45/212.
5
The UNGA decided to launch this process by its resolution 47/188 in December 1992.
6
The UNEP's Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts on Biological Diversity conducted preparatory work, and later its Ad Hoc Working Group of Technical and Legal Experts or Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee adopted the agreed text in Nairobi in May 1992.
7
For instance, Agenda 21 contains chapters on protection of the atmosphere, combating deforestation, protection of the oceans, as well as other sections that are relevant to climate change. Linkages exist between the Climate Change Convention and UNCCD, CBD, and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. For a discussion of linkages between some of these agreements, see “Protecting our planet – securing our future,” United Nations Environment Programme, United States Aeronautics and Space Administration (The World Bank, 1998).
8
States not party to the convention may only attend as observers during meetings of the Conference of the Parties and the Subsidiary Bodies (Articles 7.6 and 9). According to the draft rules of procedure (which are being provisionally applied, with the exception of Draft Rule 42 on “Voting”), “observers may, upon invitation of the President, participate without the right to vote in the proceedings of any session, unless at least one third of the Parties present at the session object.”
9
This group of countries does not correspond to the definition of the UN or that of the UNDP of “developing countries.”
10
The European Community is itself a party to the convention, and frequently presents an official position during negotiations.
11
JUSCANNZ is made up of Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, and the United States of America. Positions of these individual countries do not always coincide; nor do they present a single official position during negotiations. They do, however, meet as a group for closed informal consultations.
12
The UNFCCC has retained the UN practice of electing officers equally from the five regional groups, with the additional inclusion of one member from the small island developing states (see Rule 22, Draft Rules of Procedure of the Conference of the Parties and its Subsidiary Bodies, FCCC/CP/1996/2).
13
See “Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,” IPCC (1996).
14
See “Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change”, IPCC (1996). See also “The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability. A Special Report of IPCC Working Group II,” IPCC (1998).

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