United Nations-Sponsored World Conferences: Focus on Impact and Follow-Up

By Michael G. Schechter | Go to book overview

Notes
1
“As is frequently pointed out, NGOs can be used quite loosely to describe any association of people, from youth groups to the Mafia, from the Roman Catholic Church to Greenpeace, from the International Chamber of Commerce to an agricultural cooperative in rural India. It includes organizations that are operational, providing services such as Oxfam, and those that are advocacy-based, such as the Third World Network. The term makes no distinction between broad membership-based organizations and small ones lead [sic] by inspired individuals. It does not distinguish between associations of citizens and organizations of capital, or between NGOs that work in cooperation with the state or those that seek to overthrow it. It fails to distinguish between the ‘big eight’ that control the US$8 billion market for NGOs and the tens of thousands that struggle for funding.” Riva Krut, with the assistance of Kristin Howard, Eric Howard, Harris Gleckman, and Danielle Pattison, Globalization and Civil Society: NGO Influence in International Decision-Making, UNRISD Discussion Paper No. 83 (Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, April 1997).
2
This leads Rodolfo Stavenhagen to conclude that: “It is not very useful to group all of these organisations and movements under the single heading of ‘non-governmental organisations.’ ” “In fact,” he continues, “… the term NGO refers most aptly to independent, private institutions involved in so-called development aid. Very often, these are but surrogates of governmental aid agencies. They usually have their headquarters in some industrialised country and carry out their activities in the Third World. Truly non-governmental popular organisations, representing the interests and demands of certain social groups (ethnic minorities, indigenous and tribal peoples, peasants, migrant workers, urban squatters, relatives of the politically persecuted or ‘disappeared ones’ and so on) should not, to my mind, be lumped together with other non-governmental organisations.” Rodolfo Stavenhagen, “Peoples' Movements: the antisystemic challenge,” in The New Realism: Perspectives on Multilateralism and World Order, edited by Robert W. Cox (London: Macmillan, for the United Nations University Press, 1997), pp. 33–34.
3
Even though the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) chose to include “municipal leaders and local authorities” as one of its three main NGO constituencies, I will not be treating local governments as NGOs. UNFCCC, Subsidiary Body of Implementation, Involvement of Non-Governmental Organizations (Bonn, 8th Session, 2–12 June 1998, Item 11 of the Provisional Agenda), FCCC/SBI/1998/5, p. 4.
4
United Nations, Department of Public Information, UN Briefing Papers, The World Conferences: Developing Priorities for the 21st Century, DPI 1816 (New York: Department of Public Information, 1997), p. 14. For an elaboration of these definitional issues, see: Michael G. Schechter, Historical Dictionary of International Organizations (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1998), pp. 1–4. See also: Leon Gordenker and Thomas G. Weiss, “Pluralizing Global Governance: Analytical Approaches and Dimensions,” in NGOs, The UN and Global Governance, edited by Thomas G. Weiss and Leon Gordenker (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1996), pp. 18–19.
5
ECOSOC's latest guidelines for granting consultative status to NGOs calls for them to have a “democratically adopted constitution” providing “for the determination of policy by a conference, congress, or other representative body, and for an executive organ responsible to the policy-making body.” It also explicitly calls for accountable and transparent decision-making processes. Moreover, the “basic resources” of NGOs gaining consultative status “shall be derived in the main part from contributions of the national affiliates or other components or from individual members.” If this last criterion is not met, an explanation needs to be provided and the ECOSOC Committee on

-208-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
United Nations-Sponsored World Conferences: Focus on Impact and Follow-Up
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 287

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.