The views expressed in this chapter are the personal opinion of the authors. They do not
necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University.
See Kofi Annan, Facing the Humanitarian Challenge: Towards a Culture of Prevention,
New York: UN Department of Public Information, 1999.
The phrase is taken from Ramesh Thakur and Carlyle A. Thayer (eds), A Crisis of Expectations: UN Peacekeeping in the 1990s, Boulder: Westview, 1995.
Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations, A/55/305-S/2000/809, New
York: UN General Assembly/Security Council, 21 August 2000, p. xiii.
Henry Wiseman, “The United Nations and international peacekeeping: A comparative
analysis”, in UN Institute for Training and Research, The United Nations and the
Maintenance of International Peace and Security, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987,
Paul F. Diehl, Daniel Druckman, and James Wall, “International peacekeeping and
conflict resolution: A taxonomic analysis with implications”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 42, No. 1, February 1998, pp. 33–55.
The two most prominent analysts, at least in English, were Professor Alan James and
veteran UN peacekeeper Major-General Indar Jit Rikhye. General Rikhye was also the
founding president of the International Peace Academy in New York. See in particular
Alan James, The Politics of Peacekeeping, New York: Praeger, 1969; Alan James, Peacekeeping in International Politics, New York: St Martin's Press, 1990; Indar Jit Rikhye,
Michael Harbottle and Bjùrn Egge, The Thin Blue Line: International Peacekeeping and
Its Future, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974; and Indar Jit Rikhye, The Theory
and Practice of Peacekeeping, London: C. Hurst, 1984. See also Paul F. Diehl, International Peacekeeping, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993; and Henry
Wiseman (ed.), Peacekeeping: Appraisals and Proposals, New York: Pergamon, 1983.
Representative works from more recent times include William J. Durch, The Evolution
of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis, New York: St Martin's
Press, 1993; John Mackinlay and Jarat Chopra, “Second-generation multinational operations”, Washington Quarterly, Vol. 15, 1992, pp. 113–134; and Steven R. Ratner, The
New UN Peacekeeping: Building Peace in Lands of Conflict after the Cold War, New
York: St Martin's Press, 1996. The United Nations itself has published straightforward
and authoritative accounts in The Blue Helmets: A Review of United Nations Peacekeeping, 3rd edn, New York: UN Department of Public Information, 1996.
See Henry Wiseman and Alastair Taylor, From Rhodesia to Zimbabwe, New York:
Pergamon Press for the International Peace Academy, 1981.
See Mala Tabory, The Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai, Boulder: Westview, 1986.
See Ramesh Thakur, International Peacekeeping in Lebanon: United Nations Authority
and Multinational Force, Boulder: Westview, 1987.
See Ramesh Thakur, Peacekeeping in Vietnam: Canada, India, Poland and the International Commission, Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1984.
The Congo crisis of the 1960s, and the UN operation there from 1960 to 1964, could be
said to have been precursors to the complex emergencies and third-generation missions.
See Michael W. Doyle, UN Peacekeeping in Cambodia: UNTAC's Civil Mandate,
Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1995; Trevor Findlay, Cambodia: The Legacy and Lessons of
UNTAC, Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 1995.
Simon Jenkins, “Fanning the flames of war”, The Times (London), 9 November 1994.
Johnson, “The injuries of war”, The Economist (London), 29 July 1995, p. 72.