United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Ad Hoc Missions, Permanent Engagement

By Ramesh Thakur; Albrecht Schnabel | Go to book overview

Notes
1
Address of Secretary-General Kofi Annan to the UN General Assembly, 20 September 1999 (GA/9596).
2
William Zartman, “Introduction: Posing the problem of state collapse”, in I. William Zartman (ed.), Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1995, p. 1.
3
Tonya Langford, “Things fall apart: State failure and the politics of intervention”, International Studies Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1999, p. 59.
4
Ibid., p. 61.
5
Pierre Hassner, “From war and peace to violence and intervention: Permanent moral dilemmas under changing political and technological conditions”, in Jonathan Moore (ed.), Hard Choices: Moral Dilemmas in Humanitarian Intervention, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998, p. 11.
6
These figures are cited in Lise Morje Howard, “The United Nations and civil war termination: Success, failure, and organizational learning”, draft introductory chapter presented at the 1999 ACUNS/ASIL Summer Workshop, Yale University, p. 1. See also UN Department of Public Information, Current and Completed Peacekeeping Operations,www.un.org/depts/DPKO.
7
Howard, ibid.
8
Zartman, note 2, p. 2. For further discussion of peacekeeping in civil conflict situations, see Paul F. Diehl, “Peacekeeping in civil wars”, in Ramesh Thakur and Carlyle A. Thayer (eds), A Crisis of Expectations: UN Peacekeeping in the 1990s, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995, pp. 223–236. This volume represents an earlier multi-authored review of some of the same issues discussed in this chapter.
9
Marc Trachtenberg, “Intervention in historical perspective”, in Laura W. Reed and Carl Kaysen (eds), Emerging Norms of Justified Intervention, Cambridge, MA: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1993, p. 31. For further discussion of the issues of intervention from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, see other chapters in this volume and also Michael J. Glennon, “The new interventionism: The search for a just international law”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 78, No. 3, May/June 1999, pp. 2–7.
10
Hassner, note 5, p. 16; for more on this debate, see Duane Bratt, “Peace over justice: Developing a framework for UN peacekeeping operations in internal conflicts”, Global Governance, Vol. 5, No. 1, January—March 1999, pp. 63–83.
11
Statement by the Permanent Representative of Nigeria, Ibrahim Gambari, to the Security Council, 30 September 1999 (SC/6736).
12
Howard, note 6, p. 4.
13
See, for example, Stephen John Stedman, Peace-making in Civil War. International Mediation in Zimbabwe, 1974–1980, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1991.
14
Among others, see Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink, “International norm dynamics and political change”, International Organization, Vol. 52, No. 4, Autumn 1998, pp. 887–918; Thomas G. Weiss and Cindy Collins, Humanitarian Challenges and Intervention, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996; and Langford, note 3.
15
US National Intelligence Council report, quoted in Dayton Daily News, 19 September 1999, p. 25A.
16
Statement by Secretary-General Kofi Annan to the Security Council, 16 September 1999 (SC/6729).
17
Kofi Annan, “Peacekeeping, military intervention and national sovereignty in internal armed conflict”, in Moore, note 5.
18
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peacekeeping, New York: UN Department of Public Information, 1992, p. 44.

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