|1.||What is the impact of regional agreements in the area of regulatory policy?|
|2.||Do the approaches to regulatory barriers differ from region to region, and if so does this represent a risk of “regulatory regionalism”?|
|3.||Are regional approaches competing with or complementing multilateral attempts to remove regulatory barriers to trade?|
The first of these questions will be dealt with in a fairly comprehensive fashion in the following section, which summarizes the evidence from the case studies. This reveals a diverse picture, but one in which regional agreements tend to go beyond the provisions of the World Trade Organization (i.e. are WTO-plus) either in coverage or in terms of procedural provisions rather than substantive rule-making.
This leads to a discussion of differences in the approaches adopted by the various regional agreements. This shows that there are some quite significant differences, for example between the greater use of policy approximation/harmonization in agreements concluded by the European Union compared with the preference for a “policed national treatment” approach that tends to characterize the agreements centred on the United States. This section also shows that differences in how regions