“What they're saying …” Arizona Jewish Post, 11 August 2000, p. 3.
On this issue, see Cheryl Greenberg, “Pluralism and Its Discontents: The Case of Blacks and Jews,” in Insider/Outsider: American Jews and
Multiculturalism, ed. David Biale, Michael Galchinsky, and Susannah
Heschel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 80–83.
In response to this social ambiguity, David Biale raises the question
of whether it is appropriate for Jewish scholars to claim to represent Jewish
identity objectively as a “subaltern” voice in response to a hegemonic
Christian culture. See Biale, “Between Polemics and Apologetics: Jewish
Studies in the Age of Multiculturalism,” Jewish Studies Quarterly 3, no. 2
(1996): 177, 184. On this issue, see also Susannah Heschel, “Jewish
Studies as Counterhistory,” and Sara Horowitz, “The Paradox of Jewish
Studies in the New Academy,” in Insider/Outsider, 103–4, 112–13, 119–29.
This survey, “Anti-Semitism in America: 2002,” was conducted by
the Anti-Defamation League and Martilla Communications in late April
and early May 2002, shortly after the Israeli army's controversial incursion
into the Jenin refugee camp. See “U.S. anti-Semitism on rise after 9/11, per
new survey by ADL,” Arizona Jewish Post, 14 June 2002, p. 1.
David Biale, Michael Galchinsky, and Susannah Heschel, “Introduction: The Dialectic of Jewish Enlightenment,” in Insider/Outsider, 5.
Kathryn Tanner, Theories of Culture: A New Agenda for Theology
(Minneapolis, Minn.: Fortress Press, 1997), 63, 107–15.
Steven Wasserstrom, Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of
Symbiosis under Early Islam (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press,