Agriculture and Economic Development in East Asia: From Growth to Protectionism in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

By Penelope Francks; Johanna Boestel et al. | Go to book overview

Notes

1 Agriculture and industrialisation: the East Asian case
1
For convenience, therefore, the term ‘East Asia’ will be used throughout the book to refer to Japan, Taiwan and Korea collectively. In addition to the South East Asian countries which are still in the process of undergoing industrialisation, there are clearly other countries, such as North Korea, the Philippines and indeed China, which belong to East Asia, or even North East Asia, geo-graphically, but which are not necessarily held to have conformed, institution-ally or strategically, to the ‘East Asian model’.
2
Taiwan’s GNP per capita in 1949 was below US$ 100 and about the same as India’s. South Korea’s did not reach this level until 1963 (Vogel 1991:13, 430).
3
For a neat summary, see Rigg 1997:9.
4
For data, see World Bank 1993:29-32.
5
Johnson 1982. For a summary of the application of the approach to Taiwan and Korea as well as Japan, see Johnson 1987.
6
See e.g. Johnson 1987:65-7. The characteristics of zaibatsu/keiretsu and chaebol in Japan and Korea are well known. For more on business groups in Taiwan, see Amsden 1991.
7
However, even in Korea, employment in small and medium enterprises grew sharply in the 1980s and accounted for over 50 per cent of total manufacturing employment in 1988 (Campos and Root 1996:63).
8
For a summary of various such models, see Ghatak and Ingersent 1984: ch. 5.
9
For a detailed analysis of the growth of agricultural protection and its causes, see Tyers and Anderson 1992: chs 2 and 3.
10
As one of the ESRC’s anonymous rapporteurs points out, the World Bank’s well-known East Asian Miracle study devotes only five out of four hundred pages to the region’s agricultural sectors.
11
For a general analysis of the protection of rice in Asia, see David and Huang 1996.
12
For the argument that the whole pattern of the development process may be different in ‘the rice economies’ from that followed by Western societies under-taking different forms of agriculture, see Bray 1986.
13
There is, however, growing criticism of the neglect of the ‘pluriactive’ farm household in the literature on agriculture in both developed (see e.g. Fuller 1990 on Europe) and developing (see e.g. Grabowski 1995) economies.
14
See for example Anderson’s suggestion that China may be moving in the same direction as Japan, Korea and Taiwan (Anderson 1996:7).

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