1.1 Settlement on the Pamphylian coast 9
2.1 The fortifications of Halifax (Nova Scotia) 1750 14
2.2 The fortifications of Mohenjodaro and Harappa 21
2.3 The fortifications of: (a) Zimbabwe; (b) a traditional Zulu village 23
2.4 The trefoil fortification system 26
2.5 The ‘arrow-head’ fortification system 26
2.6 Idealized urban fortification design, 1600 29
2.7 Willemstad (The Netherlands) 30
2.8 The fortifications of Montreal, 1744 32
2.9 The fortifications of Galle (Sri Lanka) 33
2.10 Idealized Coehoorn fortification system, 1685 36
2.11 The fortifications of Maastricht, 1794 38
2.12 Groningen (The Netherlands): (a) fortifications in 1826; (b) use of fortifications, 1980 40
2.13 Fort George (Scotland) 41
2.14 The fortress of Louisbourg (Nova Scotia) 43
2.15 Evolution of the artillery defences of Halifax (Nova Scotia) 44
2.16 The last fortifications of Antwerp 47
2.17 The national defence lines in The Netherlands and Belgium 50
2.18 National defence development model 53
2.19 Fortifications and land use in Zutphen (The Netherlands) 56
2.20 Successive fortifications of Paris 58
2.21 Fortifications and land use in Perpignan (France) 59
3.1 The garrisoning of US Sixth Army Corps in West Germany 71
3.2 A model of the location of military installations 72
3.3 Military installations in West Berlin 73
3.4 Military installations in Halifax (Nova Scotia) 76
3.5 Model of the evolution of a fortified garrison and dockyard town 78
3.6 Defensive settlement systems in Palestine 81
4.1 Model of a defensive city 94


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War and the City


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