Environmental Impact Assessment: Theory and Practice

By Peter Wathern | Go to book overview

3

Developments in EIA methods

R.BISSET

Introduction

Since the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) became law in the United States, much effort has been expended by agency personnel, consultants and academics in devising methods to aid preparation of environmental impact statements (EISs). Most of this work has emanated from the USA, but with the introduction of EIA procedures into more and more countries, the ingenuity devoted to developing EIA methods has increased correspondingly. EIA methods are formulated throughout the world although the USA is still the main source.

For the purposes of this discussion a ‘recent’ method is one which has appeared in the literature since 1978. This literature consists of articles in journals, EISs, unpublished conference papers and items from the ‘grey literature’ which contain so much of the thinking and writing devoted to EIA. Pre-1978 methodological developments have been widely reviewed in the literature and comprehensive descriptions can be found in, for example, Clark et al. (1980), Canter (1983), Bisset (1984a) and Wathern (1984).

The term ‘method’ deserves some elucidation. A distinction must be made between methods and techniques used in EIA. EIA techniques are concerned with predicting future states of specific environmental parameters such as noise levels. In any single EIA study a number of techniques may be used. Together, they provide data which are then collated, arranged, presented and sometimes interpreted according to the organizational principles of the EIA method being used. EIA methods have been described alternatively as methodologies, technologies, approaches, manuals, guidelines and even procedures in the literature.

This chapter cannot contain a description or discussion of every method which has been put forward since 1978 nor can it ignore totally the pre-1978 literature, upon which many of the more recent developments are based. Rather it will try to identify common themes or trends which appear to characterize the methods developed since 1978. Attention will be paid to recent and current thinking which has resulted in the development of a particular type of method or its variants. The types of method described here are index approaches, systems diagrams, simulation modelling and the ‘sound ecological principles’ approach.

-47-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Environmental Impact Assessment: Theory and Practice
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 332

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.