Landscape Planning and Environmental Impact Design

By Tom Turner | Go to book overview

Part 2

Environmental Impact Design

Introduction
A certain amount of land-use history is contained in the second part of this book. Although it centres on Britain, the stories are uncomfortably similar in other countries. The common pattern struck me after completing the first edition of the book and was outlined in Chapter 1 of this edition. It derives from the universal truths of science and may be common to every land-use in every industrialized country:
1 Pre-industrial multi-purpose planning Landowners aimed to achieve as many types of benefit as they could from the land under their control (Fig. 0.2).
2 Professionalized planning The professions offered increased efficiency and output through the use of specialized scientific techniques.
3 Industrialized and single-purpose planning The output of private goods was maximized and that of public goods ignored (Fig. 0.3).
4 Public protest Communities protested at the loss of public goods.
5 Environmental planning and design Landusers are moving towards multipurpose planning.

At present, land-users and professions are at different points on the return to multi-purposism and they have different reputations. In Britain, the highway engineer may be the most notorious, the water engineer the most enlightened, the park manager the most blinkered, the quarryman the most unimaginative, the nature conservationist the most devious. Architects and planners are the most vilified by the general public. Landscape architects have the widest objectives and the fewest achievements.

In the mid-twentieth century, rivers were planned only for flood control, farmlands for food, forests for timber, military training grounds for war games, roads for vehicular transport, buildings for the benefit of what went on inside their walls. The most scientifically planned of all societies, the

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Landscape Planning and Environmental Impact Design
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Part 1 - Landscape Planning 1
  • Chapter 1 - Will Planning Die? 3
  • Chapter 2 - Landscape Plans 28
  • Chapter 3 - Context Theories 73
  • Part 2 - Environmental Impact Design 109
  • Chapter 4 - Public Open Space 113
  • Chapter 5 - Reservoirs 155
  • Chapter 6 - Mineral Working 185
  • Chapter 7 - Agriculture 217
  • Chapter 8 - Forests 246
  • Chapter 9 - Rivers and Floods 280
  • Chapter 10 - Transport 318
  • Chapter 11 - Urbanization 353
  • Appendix - Environmental Impact Questions 394
  • References 402
  • Index 417
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