Warfare, State, and Society in the Byzantine World, 565-1204

By John Haldon | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction
1.
For historical surveys see P.R.L. Brown, The World of Late Antiquity (London, 1971); George Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State (Oxford, 1968); The Cambridge Medieval History, IV: The Byzantine Empire, 2 parts, revised edn J.M. Hussey (Cambridge, 1966); M. Whittow, The Making of Orthodox Byzantium, 600-1025 (London, 1996); M. Angold, The Byzantine Empire 1025-1204. A Political History (London, 1984). For the seventh century as a period of transformation, see J.F. Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture, 2nd revised edn (Cambridge, 1997).
2.
A useful introduction in English to the history of Byzantine studies can be found in the opening section of Ostrogorsky’s History of the Byzantine State.
3.
Hans Delbrück, History of the Art of War, II: The Barbarian Invasions, trans. Walter J. Renfroe, Jr (Lincoln/London, 1990), pp. 339-83; III: Medieval Warfare, pp. 189-202 with 203-15 (on the Arabs). Oman’s work—The Art of War in the Middle Ages, A.D. 378-1515—was originally published in 1885, then republished in an up-to-date version and edited by J.H. Beeler in 1953 (Ithaca, NY), and is now available in paperback. For an alternative, often dogmatic, but nevertheless still insightful approach to the relationship between warfare and society, see also J.S. Rasin, Geschichte der Kriegskunst (Berlin, 1959), originally published in Russian in the late 1940s and marred by the political and ideological exigencies of its time.
4.
Among the more reliable older accounts are: The Cambridge Medieval History, IV: The Byzantine Empire, part 2 (Cambridge, 1967), pp. 35-50; the chapter by W. Ensslin, in N.H. Baynes and H. St L.B. Moss (eds), Byzantium: An Introduction to East Roman Civilization (Oxford, 1969), pp. 294-306. Only one Greek scholar devoted a monograph to the subject, but the work was heavily marked by romantic Hellenism and a nationalist perspective: see N. Kalomenopoulos, The Military Organisation of the Greek Empire of Byzantium (Athens: S.K. Blastos, 1937 (in Greek)), which refers throughout to “our” empire!
5.
Good detailed treatments can be found in A. Toynbee, Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World (London, 1973), pp. 282-322 (the army), 323-45 (the navy); Whittow, The Making of Orthodox Byzantium, pp. 113-26, 165-93, 323-5.

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